2.3.3  Control of vectors

As mentioned above, all food should be stored in a way that it is not accessible to flies, rodents and other potential vectors. Storing wastes properly is also an important way of controlling vectors. Food waste should be disposed of immediately or stored in a closed container before disposal to discourage the presence of flies, etc. Household solid waste storage containers should be emptied frequently. If the waste is disposed of in a pit it should be covered with soil immediately.

Waste management can also play a part in controlling mosquitoes. Mosquitoes need water to breed, but they can also do this successfully in very small temporary puddles of rainwater. Plastic bags and other plastic waste that is carelessly discarded can hold enough water to enable mosquitoes to reproduce. Collecting and disposing of plastic correctly by burial or burning ensures this opportunity for mosquito breeding is removed.

  • According to the F diagram (Figure 2.5), which of the three barriers to faecal-oral disease transmission would be most effective in preventing infection?

  • The three barriers in the F diagram are sanitation (using a latrine), safe water supply and good hygiene, specifically handwashing. The first two are effective barriers to some of the steps in disease transmission, but hygiene cuts across all the lines of transmission. If the person who is the potential new host washes their hands at all critical times, this will be the single most effective method of preventing infection.

You have seen how poor sanitation and waste management can contribute to the spread of many different communicable diseases. The following sections describe how these negative effects on health can have further impacts on education and the economy.

2.3.2  Food hygiene

2.4  Impacts on children and education