Summary of Study Session 2

In Study Session 2, you have learned that:

  1. Many health problems are associated with poor sanitation and waste management, principally caused by contact with human faeces.
  2. The main types of infectious agent responsible for communicable diseases are bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms.
  3. The F diagram shows how infectious agents from faeces can be ingested by someone who then becomes infected.
  4. Poor sanitation and waste management create conditions that may encourage flies and other disease vectors.
  5. Good hygiene behaviour, especially handwashing with soap at critical times, can significantly reduce health risks.
  6. Diseases associated with poor sanitation affect children’s physical development and school attendance. Poor sanitation facilities in schools also affect attendance, especially for girls.
  7. Healthy people are more productive, which brings economic benefits to them and to the wider community.
  8. In industry, minimising the amount of waste can reduce costs throughout the manufacturing process.
  9. Environmental impacts of poor sanitation and waste management at a local level include pollution of land and watercourses, the visual impact of litter, and bad odours. At a global level, applying the 3 Rs to solid waste management can reduce energy use which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

2.6  Impacts on the environment

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 2