Summary of Study Session 5

In Study Session 5, you have learned that:

  1. In Ethiopia the trend in latrine use since 1990 is positive, with a significant reduction in open defecation.
  2. Traditional pit latrines pose health and environmental risks and are frequently structurally unsafe.
  3. Shared latrines are used by two or more households; the term also applies to communal and public latrines.
  4. Improved latrines ensure the hygienic separation of human waste from people. They should be safe to use and easy to maintain.
  5. Pit latrines must be located and designed with care and constructed using appropriate techniques and locally available materials.
  6. The required depth of a proposed pit can be calculated from the number of users, the sludge accumulation rate, the required lifetime of the pit and the cross-sectional area of the proposed pit.
  7. Improved facilities include ventilated improved pit latrines, ecological sanitation systems such as the Arborloo, urine-diverting latrines and biogas latrines, and pour-flush or cistern-flush toilets which are appropriate if water is available.
  8. Selection of latrine technologies depends on location, the availability of materials and costs. Due consideration must be given to safety and accessibility and the needs and wishes of users.

5.7.5  User preferences

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 5