Summary of Study Session 5
In Study Session 5, you have learned that:
- In Ethiopia the trend in latrine use since 1990 is positive, with a significant reduction in open defecation.
- Traditional pit latrines pose health and environmental risks and are frequently structurally unsafe.
- Shared latrines are used by two or more households; the term also applies to communal and public latrines.
- Improved latrines ensure the hygienic separation of human waste from people. They should be safe to use and easy to maintain.
- Pit latrines must be located and designed with care and constructed using appropriate techniques and locally available materials.
- The required depth of a proposed pit can be calculated from the number of users, the sludge accumulation rate, the required lifetime of the pit and the cross-sectional area of the proposed pit.
- Improved facilities include ventilated improved pit latrines, ecological sanitation systems such as the Arborloo, urine-diverting latrines and biogas latrines, and pour-flush or cistern-flush toilets which are appropriate if water is available.
- Selection of latrine technologies depends on location, the availability of materials and costs. Due consideration must be given to safety and accessibility and the needs and wishes of users.
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Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 5