5.6.2 Cistern-flush toilet

The cistern-flush toilet (Figure 5.17) also known as a water closet or WC, is usually made of ceramic material and consists of two parts: a bowl into which excreta are deposited and a tank (cistern) with volume of approximately 6-13 litres that supplies flush water for carrying away excreta. It needs a connection to constant running water for operation, and a discharge pipe to take the wastewater away to a sewer or septic tank. WCs are quite common in government offices, schools, hotels and health facilities. The attractive feature of the flush toilet is that it has a water seal to prevent odours from coming back up through the plumbing, but it is costly and requires a skilled plumber for installation.

Figure 5.17  A cistern-flush toilet.

5.6.1  Pour-flush toilets

5.6.3 Urinals