8.6 Energy recovery
The fourth option in the waste hierarchy is recovery. Recovery is about finding other uses for wastes that enable some value to be extracted or recovered from them, usually by using them as a source of energy.
Recovering energy from waste on a large scale using an advanced incineration plant is a high-technology, high-cost option that is common in many developed countries. However, it needs a highly developed infrastructure (a reliable source of waste, good roads, a reliable waste collection service, a power distribution grid, etc.) and large amounts of waste. This technology is currently rarely used in low- and middle-income countries, but as cities develop there is great potential for energy-from-waste in the future in Ethiopia and many other countries (Scarlat et al., 2015).