12.4 Planning for improvements
To make improvements to the sanitation and waste management situation in any of the institutions we have described requires careful planning. If you were involved in a scheme to make improvements to institutions, there are a number of planning activities that should be done in a stepwise manner. Some of the key activities are brieﬂy described below.
Know the scope of your activity
This requires the identification of institutions by type and number in your working area.
Identify existing WASH-related problems
A survey to assess the conditions and gather data on any existing problems should be undertaken. This is similar to the assessments you learned about in Study Session 3. It will provide baseline data that is useful for analysing any problems and setting priorities based on the local situation. An example checklist for a school is shown in Table 12.1.
|1.0 General information|
|1.1||Date of inspection|
|1.2||Name of the institution|
|1.3||Number of students by sex||Male/female|
|1.6||Level of school||1st cycle/2nd cycle|
|2.0 School compound|
|2.1||Location of school, hazards such as noise, proximity to road|
|2.2||Compound sanitation: free from solid waste, flowing liquid waste||Yes/no – indicate the subject|
|3.4||Condition of classroom and its floor|
|4.0 Water supply|
|4.1||Is water available in the school compound?||Yes/no|
|4.3||Supply of drinking water and handwashing facilities||Yes/no|
|4.4||Number of water taps|
|4.5||Cleanliness around the water point||Yes/no|
|5.0 Latrine provision|
|5.1||Is latrine available in the school compound?||Yes/no|
|5.2||Type of latrine||Pit latrine/VIP/other|
|5.3||Floor of latrine (washable slab)||Concrete slab/earth|
|5.4||Latrine available for:||Students/teachers|
|5.5||Separate latrines for male and female students||Yes/no|
|5.7||Excreta seen around the latrine||Yes/no|
|5.8||Excreta inside the latrine||Yes/no|
|5.9||Can a student use the latrine in its current condition?||Yes/no|
|5.10||Doors that lock from the inside, not the outside||Yes/no|
|5.11||Number of latrine holes|
|5.12||Access to disabled children||Yes/no|
|5.13||Access to menstrual hygiene management||Yes/no|
|6.0 Solid waste management|
|6.1||Is there a refuse container in the compound?||Yes/no|
|6.2||Is there a refuse container in each classroom?||Yes/no|
|6.3||Is there a burial pit for refuse?||Yes/no|
|6.4||Is there an incinerator?||Yes/no|
|6.5||Is waste collected for disposal by a contractor?||Yes/no|
|7.0 Students’ personal hygiene (observe a few students)|
|8.0 Handwashing facility|
|8.2||Source of running water for rinsing (tap, jug)||Tap/jug|
|8.3||Soap or ash||Yes/no|
|8.4||Soak pit to avoid standing water||Yes/no|
|9.0 Summary of main findings|
Identify partners that you can work with
It is useful to identify partners in order to work together and bring improvements from mutual efforts. Depending on the type of institution, partners are likely to be government offices such as the kebele administration, health office, education office, water utility, school administration, school parents’ committees, school WASH clubs, traditional leaders or police and court desks. It is also important to include authorities of religious and other local institutions/organisations.
Identify and prioritise activities
In collaboration with partners and in consultation with potential beneficiaries, proposed activities can be identified and then plans developed. There will need to be careful assessment of the resources required. Improving sanitation, waste management and hygiene so that they meet recommended requirements is challenging. For example, if a school has no latrine and the school head is advised to install latrines for students, they cannot do it immediately. They need time and a budget.
If the school has latrines but they are in poor condition (Figure 12.5) then improvements can be made more easily and require fewer resources. Other activities that may not require many resources include establishing WASH clubs, hygiene education for students, and periodically conducting personal hygiene inspections.
What improvements would you suggest for the school facilities shown in Figure 12.5?
The priorities would be to:
- introduce a daily cleaning schedule to keep cubicles and the surrounding area clean
- fit doors to the cubicles for privacy
- provide water in a by the basin jerrycan if piped water supply is not possible
- provide soap.
Design the plan of action
This will depend on the number and type of institution. The plan should indicate the list of activities, the timescale for implementation, the frequency for regular events like inspections, and who is responsible. It should also include appropriate follow-up activities after improvements have been made.