Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 13

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

SAQ 13.1a (tests Learning Outcome 13.1)

  • a.Match the following words to their correct definitions.

Using the following two lists, match each numbered item with the correct letter.

  1. willingness to pay

  2. affordability

  3. CLTSH

  4. commercial opportunities

  • a.the ability of the local people to pay for a sanitation product or service

  • motivated people are to pay for improved sanitation and waste management

  • c.ways in which private sector organisations could provide products or services on a commercial basis for profit

  • d.a strategy where communities take the lead in the process of eliminating open defecation

The correct answers are:
  • 1 = b
  • 2 = a
  • 3 = d
  • 4 = c

SAQ 13.1b (tests Learning Outcome 13.1)

  • b.What are the 4 Ps of marketing?



The 4Ps are: product, place, promotion and price.

SAQ 13.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 13.2 and 13.3)

Two examples of commercial opportunities in urban sanitation are:

  • a.a pit-emptying service
  • b.a slab-manufacturing business.

For each of these possible businesses, suggest at least one way to create demand for the product or service and at least one possible constraint to a successful and sustainable business.


  • a.To create demand for a pit-emptying service you would have to raise awareness among the people who owned or were responsible for the pits of the need for regular emptying and the potential dangers of the pit overflowing if it was not emptied. Constraints include:
    • the start-up costs of buying the pit-emptying machinery (e.g. Sludge Gulper, Vacutug)
    • employing and training responsible staff
    • operational difficulties such as access to the pits
    • costs of effective advertising and promotion of the service to potential customers
    • price of the service - if the price was too high people would not be willing to pay or it may not be affordable.
  • b.Demand for latrine slabs could be created by the CLTSH strategy or promoting the advantages of latrines by behaviour change communication – or both. Promotional leaflets and advertisements could help to convince people of the benefits or having their own improved latrine (health benefits, impressing their neighbours etc.). Constraints are similar to those above in some respects and include:
    • the costs of buying raw materials and equipment for slab manufacture
    • employing and training staff to make and sell the slabs
    • transporting the slabs from the place of manufacture to the customers
    • costs of effective advertising and promotion of the slabs to potential customers
    • price of the slabs – if the price was too high people would not be willing to pay or it may not be affordable.

This is not a complete list and you may have thought of other ways of creating demand and possible constraints.

SAQ 13.3 (tests Learning Outcome13.3)

Which of the following statements is false? In each case explain why it is incorrect.

  • A.Sanitation marketing is aimed at encouraging individuals and households to want to install their own latrine.
  • B.Making good quality slabs that are durable, easy to clean and reasonably priced is all that is needed for a successful business.
  • C.Sanitation marketing aims to improve public and environmental health by encouraging demand for sanitation products and services.
  • D.Sanitation marketing can support communities in achieving the goal of open-defecation free (ODF) status.
  • E.The only way to convince people to buy a latrine is to tell them about the health risks from open defecation.


B is false. Even the best quality slabs will not sell unless there is demand for them.

E is false. Telling people about health risks is important but they may be more convinced by arguments that emphasise the increased status and sense of pride they may gain from having a latrine.

SAQ 13.4 (tests Learning Outcome 13.4)

Give two examples of potential benefits and two examples of possible drawbacks from public–private partnerships in urban sanitation and waste management.


Benefits from public–private partnerships include:

  • they can be more efficient and provide a better service because private companies are motivated by the potential profits
  • private companies can be specialists in the service area and have access to expert knowledge and special equipment
  • they may be able to access funds that are not available to government offices.

Drawbacks include:

  • private companies may be greedy and more interested in profit than in providing a good service
  • they may not be committed to providing the service over a long period of time and may leave or close down unexpectedly
  • if a single company provides a service with no competition they may take advantage of their monopoly by raising prices.

Summary of Study Session 13