An effective monitoring programme needs precise and specific measures that can be used to assess progress towards achieving the intended goals. These are called indicators. An indicator is something that can be seen, measured or counted and that provides evidence of progress towards a target. Some examples of basic monitoring indicators for urban sanitation and waste management are:
- number of households with unimproved latrines
- number of schools with improved latrines
- number of people using communal latrines
- number of people using public latrines
- number of public toilets constructed
- number of Health Extension Workers trained in solid waste recycling and reuse
- number of institutions with improved VIP latrines and handwashing facilities
- number of households with access to improved sanitation facilities
- number of schools with access to adequate sanitation
- number of community members who received education and information on the safe handling and disposal of wastes
- number of community members trained on safe handling and disposal of wastes
- number of community meetings held on safe handling and disposal of wastes.
These are all examples of indicators that could be used to monitor progress towards specific programme targets.