Week 3: Using video to support teacher development

Introduction

There are five activities this week, including an assignment (Activity 3.3) for your portfolio of participation that focuses on giving and receiving feedback.

In order to complete the assignment effectively you will need to identify a peer or colleague who is willing to work with you on the task. They may not have heard of TESS-India or OER, and you need to think about how you can introduce your colleague to them prior to working with you on your assignment. For example, you may wish to discuss how the TESS-India OER position teachers and teacher educators as active learners and how they bring together theory and practice to support educators in implementing active participatory approaches to learning.

The focus this week is on using videos to support teachers in developing more active approaches to teaching and learning in their classrooms. Classroom videos have the potential to be a valuable resource for teacher educators. You will be looking at some of the TESS-India videos in detail and sharing your ideas with others.

Videos of teachers working with students in genuine situations provide a ‘window’ into different classrooms. They are able to show how teachers use active learning approaches with their students.

A number of videos have been created for the TESS-India project, which provide helpful exemplars to use with teachers. The videos have been filmed in primary and secondary schools in India. They show teachers trying out more learner-centred, participatory approaches with their students. Their aim is to inspire teachers to experiment with similar approaches and techniques in their own classroom. Although these excerpts from lessons are not perfect – no lesson is – they show that it is possible for teachers working in authentic situations to develop more interactive teaching approaches.

As well as using online videos, you can also make your own videos by recording in classrooms in your locality and use these as a prompt for discussion with teachers. Before making such recordings, it is important to check that everyone is comfortable with the process and that you have obtained the necessary permissions.

Reflection point

What particular classroom practices or actions would you like to show teachers through video clips?

Activity 3.1: Using video to support active pedagogy

Allow approximately 20 minutes

The TESS-India OER video below shows a primary school teacher working with a multigrade class. He is the only teacher in the school and teaches 90 pupils spanning Class I to Class V.  

  1. [Podcast] Watch this video and, as you do so, list the key things that you notice. What do you think are the main points that the video makes about learner-centred pedagogy?
Skip transcript: Using groupwork: Lower Primary Science

Transcript: Using groupwork: Lower Primary Science

Commentary:
In a multigrade primary school around 90 students from different linguistic backgrounds study with a single teacher. The one-room school has an incomplete partition wall that separates Class I and Class II children from the rest of the students. Two columns of Class III students, two columns of Class IV students and three columns of Class V students share the same space.
Here, the teacher manages groupwork activities in a science lesson.
Teacher:
यह पाठ दिया हुआ है इस पाठ को आपको पढ़ना है और इसमें चित्र दिए हुए हैं, ये चित्र समझना है। आप िारों बच्िे पास-पास में...
Commentary:
The teacher moves between Classes III, IV and V to set his students initial group tasks on different topics.
Teacher:
और कॉपी में लिखना है कक मकडी है - तो मकडी इस में कहााँ पर रह रही है, दिख रही है उसमें?
अब िौथी वािे बच् िे, हमारी बात ध्यान से सुननए। कैसे पता ििता है आपको कक हवा है यहााँ पर? क् या यहााँ कमरे में आपको हवा दिख रही है?
Students:
नहीीं
Teacher:
नहीीं दिख रही है। कैसे पता ििता है आपको कक हवा है यहााँ पर?
Students:
Page दहि रहे हैं।
Teacher:
तो आप, जो जो आपको पता ििता है, जजन बातों से पता ििता है - जजन बातों से पता ििता है कक हवा है - उसको आप िोग ऐसे गोि घेरे में बैठ जायेंगे - और बातिीत कर करके लिखेंगे - कक आपको काहे काहे से पता ििता है। और पीछे वािे भी ऐसे गोि घेरा बनाकर लिखेंगे।
पााँिवी वािे, आप िोग बस में सफ़र करते हैं, मोटरसाईकि से करते हैं, टेंम्पो में सफ़र करते हैं। आपको, ििता हुआ दिखाई िेता है। क् या ििते दिखाई िेते हैं?
Students:
पेड
Teacher:
तो पेड ऐसे उल्टे ििते हुए क् यों दिखते हैं? यह आपको वविार करना है - और बातिीत करके लिखना है।
एक, िो, तीन, िार, पााँि। आप सभी पााँि - गोिे में बैठ जायेंगे?
Student 1:
बस ििती है, तो किर दिखाई िेते हैं।
Teacher interview:
The first issue is how to make a group. They can be defined by ability level, or they can be made more simply. A simple group means those who are sitting close by will make one group among themselves and then start working.
This is the best way because students tend to understand their neighbours more easily and they can then grasp things more quickly. However, the problem with this is that weaker students are not always able to work together effectively, and they are not able to develop one another as well.
Teacher:
यह इसमें चित्र दिए हुए हैं। दिख रहें हैं, सबको चित्र?
अब इसमें क्या करना है, जैसे यह मछिी है - तो यह मच्छी पानी में रहती है, इसे िाईन से पकड कर खीींि कर उसको पानी में िाना है।
मैं यह िाटट ि ाँगा। आप िोग िो-िो, तीन-तीन भाई-बहन बैठ जायेंगे, ऐसे गोिे में। तो सब िेख िेख कर काम करेंगे एक-ि सरे का।
तुम - िोनों बनाना, यह तुम िोनों बनाना, ऐसे खसक जाओ। शाब्बास!
Student 3:
यह पानी में रहता है।
Student 4:
केकडा भी पानी में रहता है।
Student 5:
ये भी।
Student 6:
कछुआ रे?
Student 5:
कछुआ नहीीं।
Commentary:
The teacher then sets Class IV a further groupwork activity on the topic of air. This time the students are given the opportunity to work outside.
Student 7:
ड ब ग...
Student 8:
और आवाज़ आती है।
Student 9:
ओय, टेढ़ी मत करना, टेढ़ी का नहीीं बोला सर ने।
Commentary:
With Class IV outside, there is more space in the classroom for Class V, whose lesson is about the seasons and the climate.
Teacher:
स यट बनकर रहेगी। और आपको काम करना है, और आपको समझाना है इनको सब को। है ना?
और रात क् या हो जायेगी?
Students:
बडी।
Teacher:
बडी हो जायेगी। आ गई बात समझ में सबको? तो अब आप िोग करके बता सकतें हैं गनतववचि? एक बार कोलशश करो आप िोग!
Student 1:
रात छोटी हो गई और दिन बडे हो गये हैं। दिन छोटे हो गए, रात बडी हो गई है।
Commentary:
Notice how the teacher manages his time well, to interact with all the groups.
Students:
नहीीं भरा रहा है...
कुछ भी नहीीं भरा रहा है, वह तो...
Teacher:
ििो अच्छा, आप िोग...
Students:
हमारा तो कुछ भी नहीीं ननकि रहा
Teacher:
बोति में पानी भरा है आपके?
Students:
नहीीं!
Teacher:
अरे! क् यों नहीीं भराया?
Students:
भराया था पर ननकि... वापस ननकि गया।
Teacher:
ऐसा उन्िा करोगे तो? अब ड बा कर िेखो एक बार, भराता है कक नहीीं भराता किर से?
Students:
बोति उपर-उपर आ रही है।
Teacher:
उपर आ रही है बोति?
Commentary:
The teacher uses questioning to support his students’ learning as they explore their observations.
Student 10:
और यह भरा नहीीं रही थी।
Teacher:
भरा नहीीं रही थी! शाब् बास!
पहिे बोति खािी थी कक भरी थी?
Students:
खािी थी।
Teacher:
तो खािी थी तो अब इसको ननकाि कर एक बार किर से करके िेखो तो - क् या क् या हो रहा है उसमें?
Student 11:
यह... इसके अींिर हवा जा रही है उपर!
Teacher:
वापस जा रही है उपर? अच् छा ! और वापस से ड बा कर िेखो तो अब पता ििेगा?
Student 11:
बाहर हवा ननकि रहीीं हैं।
Teacher:
अच् छा! हवा ननकि रही है? अच् छा ! अब बताइए मुझे - कक इसमें क् या क् या है?
Student:
इिर पानी से भरा हुआ है और...
Teacher:
हााँ, इसमें उपर-उपर क् या है?
Students:
हवा!
Teacher:
हवा भरी हुई है!
Student:
मैंने कर लिया।
Student:
मैंने भी कर लिया।
Commentary:
The teacher checks the groupwork of Classes I and II. He then asks Class V to demonstrate their practical experiment to Classes III and IV.
Teacher:
आप बडे बच् िे हैं, आप छोटे बच् िों को आसानी से समझा सकते हैं, िौथी वािों को। तो आपको उनको करके और यह समझाकर बताना है आपको। ठीक है?
Student 2:
अभी सुबह हो रही है। इिर से प्रकाश आ रहा है। अभी िोपहर हो रही है। अभी शाम हो रही है।
Teacher interview:
It is much better if students explain their ideas to each other. That way they understand and learn more easily.
Commentary:
Groupwork with large classes requires careful planning and classroom management.
What have you observed here to help you organise effective groupwork with your students?
End transcript: Using groupwork: Lower Primary Science
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Using groupwork: Lower Primary Science
Interactive feature not available in single page view (see it in standard view).

You probably watched the video from the point of view of the teacher and noted aspects such as how he managed the pupils and how he organised the activities.

  1. [Podcast] Now watch the video again, but focus on the experience of the students.

    [Reading matter] Note your responses to the following questions:

    • How did the students react to the groupwork tasks?
    • What evidence was there that they were actively engaged and learning?
    • How did the teacher interact with the students during the activities?
    • What do the interactions suggest about the teacher–student relationship?
    • In what ways did the teacher allow students to take responsibility for their own learning?

Helping teachers to notice

What teachers notice in a classroom or from a video will reflect their knowledge, beliefs and experience of teaching and learning, what they value, and their views about effective practice. This forms the ‘framework’ in which they operate as teachers. Trainee teachers have limited experience and are starting to develop their own individual teacher framework. As a teacher educator, you can guide teachers to develop and change their frameworks that incorporate active, participatory approaches through using videos as a starting point for discussion and reflection. Your role includes helping teachers notice the things that they might otherwise miss. 

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1 Giving and receiving feedback