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Could we control our climate?
Could we control our climate?

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4.2 Real world trials in CDR

Bioenergy and CCS are usually used separately in industry, rather than as a closed BECCS system like the Illinois Industrial CCS Project. Biomass is, of course, humanity’s original source of energy for cooking and heating – by direct combustion of fuel wood, charcoal and dried dung (Figure 9) – and still is for one-third of the world’s population (International Energy Agency, 2007).

Figure 9a is a photograph showing several women in a room cooking with two biomass stoves - one is an open fire in an open-topped box; the other is obscured by smoke or steam. Figure 9b is a photograph that shows a woman cooking with a pan on an improved biomass stove, which is directing an intense flame onto a pan; no smoke can be seen.
Figure 9 (a) Indoor cooking with biomass stoves. (b) An improved biomass cookstove in India.

Vegetable and animal oils can be used directly as biodiesel; fermentation of crops produces bioethanol (i.e. alcohol); and anaerobic decomposition of plants or animals produces methane and other biogases. Using this information, match the following biomass sources to the type of biofuel they provide.

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Biofuels and waste were estimated to provide 12% of the world’s total fuel consumption in 2013, little changed from the 1973 estimate of 13% (International Energy Agency, 2015).

CCS, on the other hand, is still a relatively young technology. By 2019 there were 17 operating CCS projects around the world, and 31.5 million tonnes of CO2 per year is being captured – 3.7 million tonnes of this is stored in geological formations. 

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Video 2 What’s the latest on field experiments and real-world geoengineering?
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