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This course was written by Laura Hills and Jonathan Hughes. Material adapted from World War 1: trauma and memory was written by Annika Mombauer.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgements section, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

The material acknowledged below is proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:


Course image: © monkeybusinessimages (via iStockphoto.com)

Figure 4: © wbritten (via iStockPhoto.com)

Figure 5: © OcusFocus (via iStockPhoto.com)

Figure 6: © s_lena (via iStockPhoto.com)

Figure 7: Johan, S. via Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tyne_Cot_%287%29.JPG), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en) 


Section 1.3.1: © The Open University


Section 1.3.1: Military and civilian losses of the states involved in the First World War: adapted from Gerhard Hirschfeld, Gerd Krumeich and Irina Renz (eds) (2012) Brill’s Encyclopedia of the First World War, volume 2, Leiden, Brill.

Section 1.3.1: Estimate by army of total number of soldiers who died during the First World War: adapted from Jay Winter (ed.) (2014) The Cambridge History of the First World War, volume 3, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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