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English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

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3.1 Adding information and ideas

It is often necessary to add new ideas and information to what has already been said. This can be signalled through a connective, as in these examples:

Furthermore, while the Earth’s temperature has been steadily rising over the last 200 years, there has also been a steady increase in the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

There are other types of uncertainty in measurements that may need considering too.

The most common words that writers use to add ideas or new information are:

  • also
  • too
  • in addition
  • furthermore
  • moreover

The essay question may require a list of related points; for example, the student may have to list several reasons, causes or effects. To help the reader follow the text, one of the sets of linking words shown in Table 1 could be used to start each paragraph.

Table 1 Sets of linking words
Set 1Set 2Set 3Set 4Set 5
Firstly, ...One reason/cause/effect ...The first reason/cause/ effect ...Sometimes ...The first point to note ...
Secondly, ...Another reason/cause/effect ...The second reason/cause/ effect ...At other times ...The next point ...
Lastly, ...A further reason/cause/effect ...The third reason/cause/ effect ...
Finally, ...

If the list can be included in one paragraph, these linking words can be placed in each sentence to introduce an additional point, as in this example taken from the Open University course Understanding business behaviour:

Firms may decide to go multinational for a variety of reasons. Sometimes, the chief motivation is the reduction of costs, such as labour costs, costs of raw materials and components, and transport costs. At other times, the growth motive is more important: a firm may wish to exploit any advantages that it has over its rivals. Another reason may be the possibility to reduce costs of production due to a large number of items being produced. The desire to circumvent import restrictions may be another motivation for firms to become multinational.

Adapted from: Suneja (2000)

As you can see, to add variety to their writing, this author used the words reason, motivation and motive when introducing each example of why firms may decide to go multinational.