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English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

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7.3 In-text citation

An in-text citation of a book consists of:

  • the surname of the author
  • the date when the work was published
  • the page number where the information and ideas can be found.

This information should be placed within brackets at an appropriate place within a sentence that contains information taken from the book. It can be included in different ways, as shown in the following examples:

According to Vygotsky (1978, p. 96) ‘the influence of play on a child’s development is enormous’.

The same point made by Vygotsky could be conveyed by paraphrasing his words:

Vygotsky (1978, p. 96) argued that the way children develop is significantly affected by play.

Alternatively, the acknowledgement can be added after paraphrased or quoted text:

‘The influence of play on a child’s development is enormous’ (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 96).

The way children develop is significantly affected by play (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 96).