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English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

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7.4 End-of-text-referencing

Having placed an in-text citation in the body of the text, at the end of the text it is necessary to provide all the information readers will need if they wish to find the book. This information should be presented in the following order:

Surname of the author, initial. (date of publication) title (in italics and using initial capital letters), place of publication, publisher.

The Vygotsky example would be presented as:

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

Activity 14

Timing: Allow approximately 5 minutes

Write an end-of-text reference using the following information:

  • Title: Advanced grammar in use
  • Year of publication: 2005
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Place of publication: Cambridge
  • Author: Martin Hewings

When you finish compare your answer with mine.

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Hewings, M. (2005) Advanced Grammar in Use, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

The references list

End-of-text references should be included in a references list. According to the Harvard system, the references list should be placed at the end of the assignment under the heading ‘References’. The authors’ names should be listed in alphabetical order. If an author appears twice in the list, the references should be ordered according to the date of publication, as in the example below.


Crystal, D. (2003) English as a Global Language (2nd edn), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (2004) Stories of English, London, Penguin.

Swan, M. and Walker, C. (2007) How Grammar Works, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Willis, J. (1996) A Framework for Task-based Learning, Harlow, Longman.