Skip to content
Skip to main content

About this free course

Download this course

Share this free course

An introduction to geology
An introduction to geology

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.


This free course was written by Anne Jay and Marcus Badger.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.


Figure 4.1: N-sky; iStockphoto

Figure 4.2: Dr Matthew Balme.

Figure 4.3: Contains British Geological Survey materials © NERC 2016. Base mapping is provided by ESRI.

Figure 4.4: Wessex Archaeology. licenses/ by-nc/ 2.0/.

Figure 4.5: Van Oord Dredging and Marine Contractors.

Figure 4.6: Mercator Media 2007.

Figure 4.7: Bastnäsite: Ra’ike licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en; Xenotime: Rob Lavinsky, iRocks. licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/; Monazite: Rob Lavinsky, iRocks. licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/

Figure 4.8: Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster).

Figure 4.9: DigitalGlobe 2016 / Google Earth.

Figure 4.10: Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) Climate Change 2013: Rhe Physical Basis. IPCC.

Figure 4.11: Samuel Barnes. licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 2.0

Figure 4.12: Kris Williams; licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/

Figure 4.13: Cls14. licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/.

Figure 4.14: Adrian Kingsley-Hughes. licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 2.0/.


Video 4.1: Video: Breaking and fixing our planet © The Open University and its licensors:

Thanks to Schlumberger for provision of Petrel software licences to Imperial College London. Geoscience Australia and the Department of Mines and Petroleum are thanked for providing seismic data. Seismic is available from the WAPIMS. Thanks to Prof. Chris Jackson, Imperial College London for mapping of the near Top Mungaroo horizon and Dr Craig Magee, Imperial College London for dataset compilation.

Emily Chen, NASA; Andrew M. Meyers, Van Oord Dredging and Marine Contractors, kaband, curraheeshutter’s, Jami Dwyer, PhotoStock10, RefDr/David Clarke, Samuel Barnes licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 2.0; Mike Beauregard; licenses/ by/ 2.0; Billy Hicks licenses/ by-sa/ 4.0/.

Videos 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4: © The Open University.

Don’t miss out

If reading this text has inspired you to learn more, you may be interested in joining the millions of people who discover our free learning resources and qualifications by visiting The Open University – openlearn/ free-courses.