2.2 Royal Assent
The monarch formally assents to a Bill in order for it to pass into law. Royal Assent has never been withheld in recent times. Queen Anne was the last monarch to withhold Royal Assent, when she blocked a Scottish Militia Bill in 1707. The Queen feared a Scottish militia might be turned against the monarchy.
Since the sixteenth century no monarch has actually signed a Bill themselves. Instead, the monarch signs what are known as Letters Patent which announce that the monarch has given their assent. Alternatively, the Queen signs a document known as a Commission which commands certain Lords, known as Royal Commissioners, to let both Houses of Parliament know that Royal Assent has been given.
Once Royal Assent has been given, the Bill is an Act of the UK Parliament.