Analytical science: Secrets of the Mary Rose
Analytical science: Secrets of the Mary Rose

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Analytical science: Secrets of the Mary Rose

Glossary

acid hydrolysis
The breakdown of organic materials using acid.
aerobic
Means 'with oxygen' and used in the context of organisms that require oxygen for metabolism. Compare with anaerobic.
anaerobic
Means 'without oxygen' and used in the context of organisms that do not require energy for metabolism. Compare with aerobic.
anoxic
Oxygen-poor conditions.
constructive interference
X-ray waves are in-phase with one another, so their displacements add.
destructive interference
X-ray waves are out of phase and their displacements cancel.
haplogroups
Groups defined by genetic traits found in mitochondrial DNA (as opposed to nuclear DNA).
isotopic fractionation
The natural separation of isotopes during a chemical reaction or process.
karyotyping
Chromosomal analysis for genetic and chromosomal abnormalities.
pilodyn
Instrument used to measure the density and strength of wood without the need to extract samples.
Raman spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy harnesses the Raman effect in order to characterise the presence of molecules within a sample.
regression analysis
Measuring changes in one item (called a variable) to predict how a related variable will change.
respiration
The collective reactions used by the body to release the chemical energy of these molecules. (The meaning of the word respiration here should not be confused with the other meaning of the term to breathe.)
scanning electron microscopy
An electron microscope that uses a rastering electron beam to image and analyse a sample.
sonar
A technique utilising sound pulses which are echoed when they reach a solid object.
specular reflection
Where the incident X-ray beam has an angle of incidence of θ, with respect to the lattice plane, and is reflected at the same angle.
X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the diffraction of short wavelength X-rays (in the region of 0.1 nm). It is widely used to investigate both single crystals and finely ground crystalline powders.
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