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Single point cutting

Updated Monday, 12th February 2018

A mechanical machining process where a tool with a single sharp cutting edge is used to remove material from the workpiece.

Turning

Cylindrical turning on an engine lathe

Diagram to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

Boring

Facing on a vertical boring machine

Diagram to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

Planning/shaping

Diagram to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

Internal boring on a horizontal boring machine

Diagram to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

Production of a flat surface on a shaper

Diagram to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

Manufacture:

Turning

  1. Most extensively used machining process, carried out on a wide range of lathes from the simplest engine lathe to the most complex multi-spindle NC lathe.

Boring

  1. Machines can be horizontal or vertical, and are used mainly for heavy, large diameter workpieces that cannot be turned on a lathe.

Planning/shaping

  1. Machines are usually horizontal, and process is slow since 2/5 of the time is spent on the return stroke. Largely replaced by milling.

Materials:

  1. Single point cutting can be carried out on almost any material whose hardness is less than that of the cutting tool material.
  2. Economic machining of a material depends on many factors: hardness of material, hardness and toughness of cutting tool, design of cutting tool, cutting fluid, metal removal rate, surface finish, tolerance, feed, speed, etc.

Design:

Turning

  1. Mainly for producing cylindrical (turning), flat (facing) or shaped (tapers, threads, etc.) surfaces.
  2. Tolerances vary from ±0.5 mm (rough turning) to ±0.1 mm (fine turning).
  3. Roughness varies from 25 µm Ra (rough turning) to 0.05 µm Ra (fine turning), but is typically 0.5–5 µm Ra.

Boring

  1. Mainly for facing, hole cutting and enlarging/truing drilled or turned holes in large components.
  2. Tolerance and roughness as for turning.
Diagrams to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

Planning/shaping

  1. Mainly for roughing and finishing flat surfaces, although arcs and special forms can be generated.
  2. Shapers used for smaller components than planers.
  3. Tolerances are typically ±0.05–0.1 mm.
  4. Roughness varies from 50 µm Ra (roughing) to 0.5 µm Ra (finishing), but is typically 1–25 µm Ra.
Diagrams to demonstrate 'Single point cutting' - see article Copyrighted  image Icon Copyright: The Open University

See Also: Multipoint cuttingGrinding and Creep feed grinding.

This article is a part of Manupedia, a collection of information about some of the processes used to convert materials into useful objects.

 

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