3.3.3 Ocean water

Myanmar has a very long coastline of 2,400 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Ocean pollution (also called marine pollution) originates on land, whether along the coast or far inland. Contaminants such as chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals are carried from farms, factories, and cities by streams and rivers into the sea.

Meanwhile, marine debris – particularly plastic – is blown in by the wind or washed in via storm drains and sewers. The seas around the country are also sometimes spoiled by oil spills and leaks, big and small (NRDC, 2018).

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Figure 4 Oil spills from tankers are a source of contamination.

3.3.4 Point and nonpoint source