7.3.3  Agriculture

Like industry, agricultural activities are also increasing in Ethiopia, and changing too. Nowadays, agricultural activities in Ethiopia use more pesticides and fertilisers. Ethiopia imports over 3000 tons of various types of pesticides annually (Federal Environment Protection Authority, 2004). Fertiliser use in Ethiopia has increased from 140,000 metric tons in the early 1990s to around 650,000 metric tons in 2012 (Rashid et al., 2013). Fertiliser contains phosphate and nitrate and if these reach water bodies they can cause excessive plant growth (Figure 7.7).

Figure 7.7  Plant fertilisers can encourage excessive growth of vegetation if they are washed into lakes and other water bodies.

Agriculture is also responsible for gaseous pollutants in the form of methane produced by livestock and solid pollutants from crop residues, packaging materials and other wastes similar to those produced domestically. Animals also contribute to waste products and potential pollutants with their excrement.

7.3.4  Transport