This Module, WASH: Context and Environment, was prepared by a team of Ethiopian authors with support from experts in blended learning pedagogy at The Open University UK. It was first published in 2016. The contributors of original material are:

Dr Abera Kumie, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University

Dr Kassahun Alemu, Institute of Public Health, Gondar University

Samson Wakuma, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University

The Academic Editors of WASH: Context and Environment are Dr Sarah Davies, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Sciences in the Faculty of Science, and Pam Furniss, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Systems in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University UK.

Additional thanks to:

Michele Paba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Rahel Kaba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Tamene Gossa, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dr Sam Godfrey, Chief of WASH, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dereje Alemu, WASH Operations Director, World Vision Ethiopia

Felipe Chaparro, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Nicholas Owuor, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Ellen Scott, OpenWASH Project Manager

Gail Vardy, OpenWASH Project Coordinator

Julie Herbert, Project Coordinator

Hannah Juma, OpenWASH Curriculum Manager

This Module should be cited as follows:

OpenWASH (2016) WASH: Context and Environment, The Open University UK/World Vision Ethiopia/UNICEF.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated below, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike licence ( licenses/ by-nc-sa/ 4.0/ [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ). The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence for this project, and not subject to the Creative Commons Licence. This means that this material may only be used unadapted within the OpenWASH project and not in any subsequent OER versions.

We have used some images of products for illustrative purposes only. The Open University is not endorsing or recommending such branded products but illustrating what may be available and what they achieve. There are other brands available other than those illustrated.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce the material in this unit:

Cover image: Trees for the Future in Flickr, licenses/ by/ 2.0/.

Figure 1.1: Basiro Davey; Figure 1.2: from ‘Overconsumption? Our use of the world’s natural resources’, Friends of the Earth,; Figures 1.3 and 1.8: © The Open University; Figure 1.4: Ethiopia Forward in Flickr, all rights reserved; Figure 1.5: © The Open University; Figure 1.6: The United Nations World Water Report, 2007, vol. 1,; Figure 1.7:; Figure 1.9: ©; Figure 1.10: United Nations University/StEP Initiative, 2013, licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 3.0/; Figure 1.11:; Figure 1.12: Trees for the Future,

Figure 2.1: adapted from; Figure 2.2:; Figure 2.3: adapted, ©; Figure 2.4: Pam Furniss; Figure 2.5: © The Open University; Figure 2.6: library; Figure 2.7: adapted from; Figure 2.8: © Magnus Franklin in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc/ 2.0/; Figure 2.9:

Figure 3.1: © Lalka ac in Flickr, licenses/ by-sa/ 2.0/; Figure 3.2: GlobalPartnership for Education in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 2.0/; Figure 3.3: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 2.0/,; Figure 3.4: adapted from; Figure 3.5:

Figures 4.1 and 4.7: © The Open University; Figure 4.2: © The Open University; Figure 4.3: © AWMISET/ Pages/ Map.html; Figure 4.4:; Figure 4.5: UNICEF Ethiopia,; Figures 4.6 and 4.8: Pam Furniss.

Figures 5.1, 5.2 and 5.4: adapted from United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (2014) World Urbanization Prospects: 2014 Revision, Highlights, New York, UNDESA, unpd/ wup/; Figure 5.5: Tolon, U.W. (2008) Comparison of Urban Upgrading Projects on Development Cooperation in Ethiopia, Barcelona, Universitat Politéchnica de Catalunya,; Figure 5.6: Basiro Davey; Figure 5.7: © Eddy Mbuyi/Oxfam in Commons Wikimedia, licenses/ by/ 2.0/ deed.en; Figure 5.8: Pam Furniss; Figure 5.9: Nicholas Watson; Table 5.1: adapted from Ministry of Works and Urban Development (MWUD) (2007) Plan for Urban Development and Urban Good Governance, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia,

Figures 6.1, 6.2 and 6.7: Basiro Davey; Figure 6.3: Pam Furniss; Figure 6.4: Magnus Franklin in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc/ 2.0/; Figure 6.5: Nicholas Watson; Figure 6.6: Janet Haresnape.

Figure 7.1:; Figures 7.2, 7.4, 7.5, 7.7 and 7.10: Abera Kumie; Figure 7.3: Pam Furniss; Figure 7.6: Nicholas Watson; Figure 7.8: David Stanley in Flickr, licenses/ by/ 2.0/; Figure 7.9: Magnus Franklin in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc/ 2.0/.

Figure 8.1: eutrophication&hypoxia in Flickr, licenses/ by/ 2.0/; Figure 8.2:; Figure 8.3: Mulu Sulute; Figure 8.4: ecobasics/ processes/ transformation-of-energy/ biomagnification/; Figure 8.5: adapted from (public domain image); Figure 8.6: Artist Paint Pots Trail in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc/ 2.0/; Figure 8.7: W. Eugene Smith; Figure 8.8: Abera Kumie; Figure 8.9: © The Open University.

Figure 9.1: NASA; Figures 9.2 and 9.3: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) ‘Summary for policymakers’ in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V. and Midgley, P.M. (eds) Cambridge/New York, Cambridge University Press,; Figure 9.4:; Figure 9.5: publications_and_data/ ar4/ wg1/ en/ faq-2-1.html; Figure 9.6: (a) Janet Haresnape, (b) © The Open University; Figure 9.7: Scripps (2007) ‘Mauna Loa record’, Scripps CO2 Program, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA,; Figure 9.8: Basiro Davey; Figure 9.9: data from download.

Figures 10.1 and 10.2(b): Samson Wakuma; Figures 10.2(a) and 10.6: Ministry of Water Resources/National Meteorological Agency (MoWR/NMA) (2007) Climate Change National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, NMA,; Figure 10.3: wp-content/ uploads/ 2015/ 03/ Unlocking-the-Power-of-Cities-in-Ethiopia.pdf; Figure 10.4: LWF/DWS, Ethiopia,; Figure 10.5: Mikael Bjerrum,; Figure 10.7: © Andrew Havens in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc/ 2.0/; Figure 10.8: Janet Haresnape; Figure 10.9: Global Fire Monitoring Center,; Table 10.2: Ministry of Water Resources/National Meteorological Agency (MoWR/NMA) (2007) Climate Change National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, NMA,;.

Figure 11.1: Research/ erosion.htm; Figure 11.2: Gert Vankrunkelsven in Wikimedia Commons, licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/; Figure 11.3: Samson Wakuma; Figure 11.4: Pam Furniss; Figure 11.5: Sarah Packwood/Help Age International,; Figure 11.6: Argaw Ashine, Oxfam, Table 11.1: adapted from Few, R. (2007) ‘Health and climatic hazards: framing social research on vulnerability, response and adaptation’, Global Environmental Change, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 281–95.

Figure 12.1: © unknown; Figure 12.2: Inter Press Service, 2014; Figure 12.3: © World Vision, 2013; Figure 12.4: © The Open University.

Figures 13.1, 13.5 and 13.7–13.10: Basiro Davey; Figure 13.2: © The Open University; Figure 13.3: Abera Kumie; Figure 13.4: from Federal Democratic Republic Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Figure 3.4 in HEAT, africa/ heat/ heat-resources, licenses/ by-nc-sa/ 2.0/ uk/; Figure 13.6: Pam Furniss.

Figure 14.1: factories-in-addis-that-dont-treat-their-waste-are-to-be-punished/; Figure 14.2: NASA in Flickr, licenses/ by/ 2.0/; Figure 14.3: wiki/ United_Nations_Conference_on_Sustainable_Development, licenses/ by-sa/ 2.0/; Figure 14.4: C. Secrett/Still Pictures; Figure 14.5:; Figure 14.6:; Table 14.1: United Nations Treaty Collection, 2015,

Figure 15.1: Sarah Davis; Figure 15.2: © UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Nesbitt in Flickr, licenses/ by-nc-nd/ 2.0/; Figure 15.3: adapted from Ministry of Health (MoH) (2005) National Hygiene and Sanitation Strategy, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa,; Figure 15.4: Abera Kumie; Figure 15.5: One WASH National Programme.

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.