Summary of Study Session 11

In Study Session 11, you have learned that:

  1. Climate change can affect human health both positively and negatively, but the negative health impacts are expected to exceed the positive effects.
  2. Changes in temperature, precipitation and weather extremes (such as heatwaves) can affect people directly, whereas indirect health impacts result from changes to natural and social systems caused by climate change.
  3. Climate change is expected to have a greater impact in low-income countries such as Ethiopia because of low numbers of trained people, poor infrastructures and limited economic capability to respond to the challenges.
  4. Many diseases of humans and livestock are increasing because of the indirect effects of climate change.
  5. Droughts and floods cause losses of human life and livestock, damage to homes, businesses and infrastructures, erosion of soils, grassland and farmland, and loss of productivity.
  6. Climate change is expected to reduce biodiversity because it has impacts on the environment and climatic conditions that threaten the survival of endangered plants and animals.
  7. Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the economy of Ethiopia which is highly dependent on climate-sensitive activities such as rain-fed agriculture and livestock production. National income from exports, such as coffee, pulses, flowers and animal products, is likely to be reduced if climate change continues.
  8. Drought has many impacts on WASH in Ethiopia. Water scarcity reduces access to clean drinking water, deters people from bathing and handwashing, and restricts the use of water-flushed toilets. People are forced to use unsafe water sources, or walk long distances to collect water, otherwise they must buy it, which adds to poverty and so increases the risk of disease and also causes children to miss schooling.
  9. Floods have many impacts on WASH in Ethiopia. Flood water spreads pollutants and disease-causing organisms from latrines, areas of open defecation and damaged sanitation lines and waste treatment facilities.

11.5  Climate change impacts on sanitation and hygiene

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 11