Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 12

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

SAQ 12.1 (tests Learning Outcome 12.1)

Match the following words to their correct definitions.

Using the following two lists, match each numbered item with the correct letter.

  1. resilience

  2. integrated catchment management

  3. vulnerability

  4. green economy

  5. adaptive capacity

  6. ecosystem services

  7. black energy economy

  8. early warning system

  • a.economic system based on carbon-intensive fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum

  • b.ability of a system to adapt to climate change and cope with its consequences

  • c.mechanisms to produce timely and meaningful information about a forthcoming emergency

  • and water management approach that takes account of the links between land use and water resources

  • e.economy with zero carbon emissions and all energy derived from renewable resources.

  • f.ability to withstand, cope with and quickly recover from shocks and stresses

  • g.susceptibility to the effects of harm

  • h.benefits and essentials for living that people get from natural environmental processes

The correct answers are:
  • 1 = f
  • 2 = d
  • 3 = g
  • 4 = e
  • 5 = b
  • 6 = h
  • 7 = a
  • 8 = c

SAQ 12.2 (tests Learning Outcome 12.2)

Resilience to the uncertainties of climate change in the water sector depends on the sustainable use of water. Give four examples of methods for improving efficiency in water use, choosing one example from each of the following: agriculture, domestic supply, industrial use and water management.


Examples of methods for improving efficiency of water use you may have chosen include:

  • From agriculture: drip-feed irrigation; growing drought-resistant crops.
  • From domestic supply: prompt repair of water pipes to reduce leakage; using less water at home; using rainwater where appropriate.
  • From industry: reusing water in manufacturing processes where appropriate.
  • From water management: adopting more flexible approaches; integrated catchment management.

SAQ 12.3 (tests Learning Outcomes 12.1 and 12.3)

Consider the four pillars of Ethiopia’s Climate Resilient Green Economy strategy and identify whether they are examples of climate change mitigation or adaptation or both.


  1. Agriculture: Both. Changing farming practices is an adaptation to climate change but in the process, emissions will be cut which is climate change mitigation.
  2. Forestry: Mitigation. Protecting forests and planting new ones is a way of enhancing carbon sinks which is part of mitigation.
  3. Power: Mitigation. Using renewable energy reduces emissions of greenhouse gases.
  4. Transport, industrial sector and buildings: Mitigation. Adopting new technologies in transport, industry and buildings will improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions.

SAQ 12.4 (tests Learning Outcome 12.4)

Which of the following statements is false? Explain why it is incorrect.

  • A.Urban resilience plans should prioritise poor and vulnerable people who are less able to protect themselves.
  • B.Cities should share information about their experiences of climate change so they can learn from each other.
  • C.The best people to prepare urban resilience plans are international experts in climate change because they can accurately predict future changes in weather patterns.


C is false. International experts in climate change may have a part to play in developing resilience plans but local people need to be involved in the process. They have essential knowledge and experience of the particular situation in the location where they live. It is also not necessarily true that the international experts can accurately predict the future. There is always some degree of uncertainty in climate change predictions.

SAQ 12.5 (tests Learning Outcomes 12.1 and 12.5)

What are the essential elements of an effective early warning system?


The essential elements of an effective early warning system are:

  • Risk analysis and knowledge: possible hazards and risks need to be understood.
  • Risk monitoring and warning services: there need to be systems in place to monitor changing situations and raise the alarm if needed.
  • Risk dissemination and communication: news of impending danger needs to be spread quickly and efficiently to everyone who may be affected.
  • Response capability: contingency plans should be prepared and resources available so that, when needed, the appropriate response can be made.

Summary of Study Session 12