Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 15

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

SAQ 15.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 15.1 and 15.2)

Which of the following statements are false? In each case explain why it is incorrect.

  • A.Proclamation is the highest law in Ethiopia.
  • B.Policy sets overall goals.
  • C.Policies provide details for implementation of programmes.
  • D.Regulations provide detailed descriptions of the provisions of strategies.
  • E.Directive is lowest in the hierarchy of law.


A is false. The Constitution is the highest law in Ethiopia.

C is false. The statement would be true if it were reversed: programmes provide details for implementation of policies.

D is false. Regulations provide further details of proclamations, not strategies.

SAQ 15.2 (tests Learning Outcome 15.3)

Why is public consultation important when developing environmental and WASH-related policies?


Article 92/3 of the Constitution states that people have the right to be consulted about environmental policies that affect them. It is important to involve all stakeholders in the development of policy so they have the opportunity to give their opinions to the policymakers and influence the outcomes. Policies should serve the public at large, so the policymakers need to be aware of all possible impacts of the policy they are formulating.

SAQ 15.3 (tests Learning Outcome 15.3)

  • a.What does the Constitution of Ethiopia say about people’s environmental rights?
  • b.List three WASH-related national policies.


  • a.In Article 44/1, the Constitution states that ‘All persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment’. You may also have mentioned the right to a healthy and safe work environment (Article 42/2).
  • b.The three main policies are the Health Policy, the Water Resources Management Policy and the Environmental Policy.

SAQ 15.4 (tests Learning Outcome 15.4)

What environmental proclamation or regulation would you use to demonstrate wrongdoing in the following examples?

  • a.A factory owner is discharging toxic effluent into a nearby river.
  • b.A builder has dumped old building materials such as bricks and plaster at the edge of a slum area.
  • c.A transport company is transporting radioactive waste in open-topped lorries.


To some extent there is overlap between the various proclamations and regulations and in some cases more than one could be applied but possible answers are:

  • a.Factory owner – Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation and Prevention of Industrial Pollution Regulation.
  • b.Builder – Solid Waste Management Proclamation.
  • c.Transport company – Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation.

Summary of Study Session 15