15.2.2 Formulating the policy
Formulating a policy and developing a draft document is done by the process owner (policy-making institution). They will organise their own Expert Group or committee of government stakeholders to be responsible for the task. Sometimes a consultancy firm is used to fully develop the draft.
The draft policy document is disseminated to different audiences including policy beneficiaries and other stakeholders who may include federal and regional ministries, community and professional representatives, academic institutions, the donor community, etc. The feedback from these interested parties enables the Expert Group to enrich and revise the draft policy, which can then be submitted for approval. Once it has been approved internally it can be submitted to the Council of Ministers. Further discussion follows and modifications and additions are considered.
The Council of Ministers submits the revised policy to the relevant parliamentary committee who discuss it and may ask for clarifications from the process owner. The committee may call on public opinion in specially arranged meetings to get additional inputs to shape the final draft.
The revised draft policy will then be debated in parliament. Final amendments can be made and then the policy document is published. Proclamations and regulations linked to the policy are published in Negarit Gazeta and become law. The Negarit Gazeta is the official government gazette for the publication of all federal laws.