4.4.1 Lack of coordination

In the past there has tended to be a lack of coordination among the organisations and agencies responsible for WASH projects, for example between governmental and non-governmental organisations, and this has resulted in duplication of effort, contradiction or inconsistency (WUP, 2003). There has also tended to be separation between projects to improve water supply and those related to sanitation and hygiene. As a result of this fragmented approach, there have been gaps in communications with stakeholders and some have been left out of the planning and knowledge sharing in a project.

New approaches to WASH are more integrated and aim to bring different stakeholders together. There is a new emphasis on the importance of communication and collaboration. For example, the One WASH National Programme, launched in 2013 is a shared programme across four federal ministries. The National WASH Coordination Office has mandates to support stakeholder communications, knowledge sharing and dissemination, and to facilitate concerted urban WASH efforts at both national and sub-national levels.

4.4 Challenges for stakeholder engagement

4.4.2 Reaching low-income households