10.2.4 Economic barriers

A number of economic barriers exist for urban communities and these include the high costs of obtaining a household pipe connection (Figure 10.9) and acquiring a latrine facility, the cost of water, and the cost of soap. In places where handwashing facilities and soap should be available (near latrines and kitchens, and in restaurants), it may be too expensive to provide them. Moreover the cost of removing sludge and of refuse collection may be prohibitively high.

Figure 10.9 A pipe connection providing safe water for a group of households.

10.2.3 Service and infrastructure-related barriers

10.2.5 Environmental barriers