Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 15

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

SAQ 15.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 15.1 and 15.2)

The descriptions below explain five of the following terms: monitoring, evaluation, indicator, result, outputs, outcomes, impacts.

Which description relates to which term? Provide an explanation for the terms for which no description has been given here.

  1. This process aims to understand the progress that has been made towards the achievement of an outcome or an impact at a specific point in time, and is linked to outcomes and impact rather than to outputs.
  2. These are the immediate results of the activities conducted. They are usually expressed in quantities, either in absolute numbers or as a proportion of a population. They are generally expressed separately for each activity.
  3. This is a measure of performance that provides evidence of progress towards a target.
  4. This describes the long-term results expected of a project, and generally refers to its overall goal(s).
  5. These are the medium term results of one or several activities. They are what the immediate outputs of the activities are expected to lead to, and they often require separate surveys to be undertaken.


  1. Evaluation.
  2. Outputs.
  3. Indicator.
  4. Impact.
  5. Outcomes.

Descriptions for the other two terms are as follows:

  • Monitoring is the routine, frequent and regular assessment of ongoing activities and/or processes.
  • Result is defined as a describable or measurable change resulting from a cause-and-effect relationship.

SAQ 15.2 (tests Learning Outcome 15.2)

Explain what is wrong with this statement: ‘M&E activities should be left until the end of a project when the final results are known.’


This statement is wrong for two main reasons. First, M&E activities should be planned from the start of any project. Baseline data need to be collected for comparison with the final results, otherwise it will not be possible to know what difference the project has made. Second, M&E activities should take place throughout a project so that progress towards goals is measured regularly and any necessary adjustments made to project implementation.

SAQs 15.3 and 15.4 are based on Case Study 15.1.

Case Study 15.1  The mothers who believe that eating berbere will protect them.

In one rural woreda in Ethiopia there is a high incidence of child diarrhoea. Research has shown that the majority of mothers do not wash their hands with soap after visiting latrines and after discarding child faeces. Furthermore, mothers wash their hands only with water before preparing food or before feeding their babies. Mothers believe that child faeces is harmless and that, as they eat berbere (chili) most days, germs will have no chance to grow in their bodies.

A social and behaviour change intervention is planned in the woreda to increase awareness, change belief and increase the practice of handwashing with soap. The intervention includes the production of posters, leaflets and training tools, training of health development army members in the use of interpersonal communication, conducting household-level counselling, community conversations and transmission of radio messages.

SAQ 15.3 (tests Learning Outcomes 15.3 and 15.4)

Based on Case Study 15.1, list the intended results of the intervention at activity, output, outcome and impact levels.


The intended results at activity, output, outcome and impact levels are:


  • HDAs equipped with the knowledge and skills to conduct interpersonal communication to promote practice of handwashing with soap.
  • Radio broadcasts arranged.
  • Posters and leaflets prepared.
  • Community conversations organised.


  • Skills of HDAs on interpersonal communication developed.
  • Increased involvement of HDAs in handwashing promotion.
  • Increased media involvement in handwashing promotion; links made to radio broadcasters.
  • Posters and leaflets distributed.
  • Community conversations held and attended by mothers of young children.


  • Increased numbers of mothers wash their hands with soap after visiting latrines and discarding child faeces, before preparing food and before feeding their children.
  • Increased understanding that child faeces is as harmful as that of an adult.
  • Increased understanding that eating berbere does not kill germs.


  • Reduction in incidence of child diarrhoea.

SAQ 15.4 (tests Learning Outcomes 15.3 and 15.4)

Based on Case Study 15.1, give one behavioural indicator that could be used for each of the four levels in SAQ 15.3.


Behavioural indicators for each of the above could include:

Impact level:

  • Number of diarrhoea episodes in children.

Outcome level:

  • Number or percentage of households having handwashing facilities with soap.
  • Number or percentage of mothers reporting regular handwashing with soap after visiting latrine or cleaning a baby’s bottom.
  • Number or percentage of men, women and children who understand the need for handwashing with soap at critical times and can explain why it is important.

Output level:

  • Number of household counselling visits by HDAs.
  • Number of people reached through the radio messages.
  • Number of posters displayed or leaflets distributed.
  • Number of mothers participating in community conversations.

Activity level:

  • Number of HDAs trained in use of interpersonal communication.
  • Number of training sessions organised.
  • Number of posters and leaflets prepared.
  • Number of community conversations organised.

Summary of Study Session 15