3 Innovation and discovery in healthcare
As with other fields of innovation, scientists have also made important discoveries in healthcare. Today, procedures such as keyhole surgery are available, which has replaced more invasive surgery, and we now have cures for illnesses that were previously incurable. Technology has also contributed significantly to ensuring that medicine is more effective than ever.
At the time of writing (2020) three new vaccinations for COVID-19 are in the process of being formally approved following trials which have been completed at unprecedented speed. The urgency for a vaccination in this context created the unusual actions of pharmaceutical companies, in the face of government pressure, insisting that trial protocols are fully complied with to ensure maximum public confidence in the safety of their products (Avorn and Kesselheim, 2020).