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Could we control our climate?
Could we control our climate?

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Acknowledgements

Introduction

Images

Course image:  courtesy: Mark Brandon.

Week 1

Images

Figure 5: Atmosphere: By CreativeInspiration from Pixabay www.pixabay.com; Cryosphere: NASA / Michael Studinger; Hydrosphere: Pexels www.pexels.com [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ; Land surface: Pexels www.pexels.com; Biosphere: © Miguel.v. https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en

Week 2

Images

Figure 1: © Google Inc.

Figure 2: The IPCC AR5 WG1 Report: Image courtesy of Andrew Whitehead

Figure 3: (a) The worldwide network of land stations in the Global Land Surface Meteorological Databank (Rennie et al. 2014). The colour corresponds to the number of years of data available for each station. (b) A snapshot of the locations of the NOAA Observing System Monitoring Center network measuring sea surface temperatures (NOAA, 2016).

Figure 4: Observed annual global mean surface temperature anomalies 1850-2012 from three datasets: Adapted from Figure SPM.1 (a) (top panel) from Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. and Meyer, L. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.

Figure 5: from IPCC (2013) Summary for Policymakers: Stocker, T.F. et al. (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Figures 6 and 10: courtesy of Gregory Johnson

Figure 7: Observed precipitation changes from 1951 to 2010: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York

Figure 8: courtesy of Tamsin Edwards

Figure 9: Greenland: Reproduced by permission, Dr Poul Christoffersen, Scott Polar Research Institute, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge

Figure 10: Tide staff used by the NOAA ‘Teachers at Sea’ Rosalind Echols and Avery Marvin: Rosalind Echols, NOAA Teacher at Sea

Figure 12: Electoral campaign, courtesy of Isaac Cordal: © Isaac Cordal

Figure 13: John-irishwildcat. http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 2.0/

Figure 14: Adapted from Figure 6-4 from Pörtner, H.-O., D. Karl, P.W. Boyd, W. Cheung, S.E. Lluch-Cota, Y. Nojiri, D.N. Schmidt, and P. Zavialov, 2014: Ocean systems. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York

Figure 15: (a) Morro da Carioca, Angra dos Reis in the State of Rio de Janerio, Brazil, where heavy rain caused fatal mudslides and flooding in January 2010: © Agência Brasil. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en (b) A sign in Rawnsley Park Station, South Australia, rendered unnecessary by the 2007-2008 drought: © Peripitus via Wikimedia. https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en

Figure 16: (a) Sámi reindeer: © Maisna / iStockphoto.com; Figure 16 (b) Sámi musician Mari Boine: © Henryk Kotowski; https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en; Figure 16(c) ‘Team Sámi’ at the Arctic Winter Games in 2014: © Sámediggi Sametinget. https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 2.0/;

Audio Visual

Video 1: A Song of Our Warming Planet by Daniel Crawford; Institute of the Environment; University of Minnesota and College of Liberal Arts

Week 3

Images

Figure 1: Andrew_Howe; iStockphoto.com

Figure 2: (a) A Stradivarius violin: © Σπάρτακος https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en; (b) Sunspots on 3 March 2015: © SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

Figure 3: An example reconstruction of total solar irradiance (solar output reaching the Earth) since 1850 (Krivova/Ball). Direct observations (Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, PMOD) are also shown for the later period. (Adapted from IPCC, 2013a)

Figure 4: egrego2. https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 2.0/

Figure 7: A collage of newspaper articles reporting predictions of global cooling in January 1970: Article back left: New York Times (1932) ‘Next Great Deluge Forecast by Science’, May 15; Article back centre: Washington Post (1970) ‘Colder Winters Held Dawn of New Ice Age’, January 11; Article back right: Washington Post (1970) ‘Scientists See Ice Age In The Future’, January 11; Article front centre: New York Times (1975) ‘Scientists Ask Why World’s Climate Is Changing; Major Cooling Widely Considered to Be Inevitable’, May 21.

Figures 8 and 9: Global sulfur emissions; from Smith et al (2011): Smith, S.J. et al (2011) Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, pp.1101-1116, European Geosciences Union. http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 3.0/

Figure 10: Papworth House, Sussex, UK/Bridgeman Images

Figure 11: Courtesy of the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center.

Figure 12: PlaneMad/Wikimedia; https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 2.5/ deed.en

Figure 13: Steve Albert, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Figure 14: Eric Rostan and Blacki Migliozzi June 2015

Audio Visual

Video 1: Climate Change: A Horizon Guide', (c) BBC, March 2015

Week 4

Images

Figures 1 and 2: Adapted from van Vuuren, D. et al (2011) 'The representative concentration pathways: an overview', Climate Change, November 2011, © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media

Figure 3: Projected mean surface air temperature change in 2081–2100 with respect to 1986–2005 for RCP4.5 from each of the 42 climate models used in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC 2013)

Figure 4: Taken from Skeptical Science; http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 3.0/

Figure 5: taken from: Predictions of mean GMST change 2081–2100 relative to 1986-2005: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press

Figures 6, 7 and 8: Piers Forster

Figures 9 and 10: taken from: IPCC, 2014: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Week 5

Images

Figure 1: Graham Cosserat, gcosserat via Flickr

Figure 2: NASA

Figure 3: The U.S. National Archives via Flickr https://www.flickr.com/ photos/ usnationalarchives/ 7152604933

Figure 4: ‘Blue Marble 2012’ images of the Earth showing (a) Africa and the Middle East, and (b) North America. (c) NASA/NOAA

Figure 6: taken from: Proposed methods of stratospheric aerosol injection: Robock et al. (2009). Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(19), p.L19703 Drawing by Brian West.

Figure 7: JackyR; https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en

Figure 8: Satellite image of ship tracks: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Figure 9: John MacNeill

Figure 10: Raeky, https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.0/ deed.en

Figure 11: NASA

Figure 12: Low-tech and high-tech methods of CDR. (a) A handful of biochar, Photo courtesy of USDA-ARS, Prosser, Wash (b) An example design of a DAC plant by Carbon Engineering Limited.

Audio Visual

Audio 1: ‘Changing Climate: The Solutions’, November 2015. BBC

Week 6

Images

Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4: taken from: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press

Figure 5: Smoke plumes generated during what are thought to be the first SRM field experiments: Izrael, Yu. A., et al. (2009);(b) The SPICE balloon, never used for the project: © theconversation.com; http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by-nd/ 4.0/

Figure 6: (a) German research vessel and icebreaker Polarstern off the Antarctic Peninsula in February 1994. The Polarstern was used for ocean fertilisation experiments such as the European Iron Fertilization Experiment and LOHAFEX. (b) Satellite image taken by NASA in August 2012 after media reports of a large-scale ocean iron fertilisation project in the northern Pacific Ocean. (c) Change in a measure of chlorophyll concentration, in milligrams per cubic metre, relative to the 10-year August mean, measured in August 2012 by NASA over approximately the same region as (b).

Figure 7: Joseph Tringali; iStockphoto.com

Figure 8: (a) Argus Gentle holds a new roofing material: (b) An infrared photograph shows the much cooler region of the new material: both courtesy of Dr Angus Gentle

Figure 9: (a) Indoor cooking with biomass stoves: (b) An improved biomass cookstove in India: both © Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves | United Nations Foundation, http://cleancookstoves.org

Week 7

Images

Figure 4: Past and projected annual mean GMST from the multi-model ensemble: Taken from Skeptical Science; http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/ by/ 3.0/

Figure 6: NASA Ozone Watch http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/ monthly/ SH.html

Figure 7: Miriam Godfrey

Figure 8: Jörn Petring/DPA/PA Images

Figure 9: (a) BuzzFeed: From http://www.buzzfeed.com/tomchivers/sea-level-rise-from-antarctic-ice-melt-may-not-be-as-bad-as Figure 2.11 (b) The Times: From http://www.thetimes.co.uk/ tto/ environment/ article4617659.ece

Week 8

Images

Figure 1: National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/18988: fig. (b) National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/ 10.17226/ 18805.

Figure 2: A graphic from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2294560/The-great-green-1-The-hard-proof-finally-shows-global-warming-forecasts-costing-billions-WRONG-along.html based on graph produced by Dr. Ed Hawkins, National Centre for Atmospheric Science.

Figure 3: The 2015 update to the GMST reconstructions: (a) reported by VICE News and (b) animated graphic by the blog ‘Carbon Brief’, January 2016.

Figure 5: © unknown

Figure 6: Emissions of CO2 observed and for the RCP scenarios: Sanford. T et al. (2014) The climate policy narrative for a dangerously warming world Nature Climate Change 4, 164–166 http://www.nature.com/ nclimate/ journal/ v4/ n3/ full/ nclimate2148.html

Audio Visual

Video 1: Newsnight, October 2014, © BBC

This free course was written by Dr Tamsin Edwards with contributions from Dr Mark Brandon.

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