Skip to main content

About this free course

Download this course

Share this free course

Could we control our climate?
Could we control our climate?

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

References

Edwards, T. L. and Challenor, P. G. (2013) ‘Risk and uncertainty in hydrometeorological hazards’, in Rougier, J. et al. (eds) Risk and Uncertainty Assessment for Natural Hazards, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, pp. 100–50.
Eosco, G. (2013) “Weather is like your mood. Climate is like your personality.” @AMSPresElect [J. Marshall Shepherd] providing great analogies this evening!, 6 January [Twitter]. Available at https://twitter.com/ WxComm/ status/ 287771155392245760 [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed 16 December 2020).
Heinlein, R. A. (1973) Time Enough for Love, New York, Putnam.
Keith, D. (2007) ‘A critical look at geoengineering against climate change’, TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Talks [Online]. Available at https://www.ted.com/ talks/ david_keith_s_surprising_ideas_on_climate_change (Accessed 16 December 2020).
Kennedy, J. (2013) Practically speaking: weather’s how you choose an outfit, climate’s how you choose your wardrobe, 6 January [Twitter]. Available at https://twitter.com/ micefearboggis/ status/ 287933033628180480 (Accessed 22 December 2020).
Rougier, J. and Goldstein, M. (2014) ‘Climate simulators and climate projections’, Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 103–23.
Shepherd, J. G. (2009) Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty, London, The Royal Society, Report 10/09.
WMO (n.d) World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) [Online]. Available at http://www.wmo.int/ pages/ prog/ wcp/ ccl/ faqs.php (Accessed 16 December 2020).
Edwards, T. L. and Challenor, P. G. (2013) ‘Risk and uncertainty in hydrometeorological hazards’, in Rougier, J. et al. (eds) Risk and Uncertainty Assessment for Natural Hazards, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, pp. 100–50.
Electoral campaign, by Isaac Cordal (Berlin, Germany, 2011), popularly known as Politicians Discussing Global Warming
Griffiths, J. (2006) Wild: An Elemental Journey, London, Penguin.
IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, [Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, [Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D. J. et al. (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Johnson, G. C. (2013) Climate Change Science 2013: Haiku [Online]. Available at https://www.wmo.int/ youth/ sites/ default/ files/ field/ media/ library/ full_ipcc_haiku_slides_opt.pdf (Accessed 17 December 2020).
NOAA (2016) Observing System Monitoring Center In Situ Monitoring [Online]. Available at http://osmc.noaa.gov/ Monitor/ OSMC/ OSMC.html (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Rennie, J. J., Lawrimore, J. H., Gleason, B. E. (2014) ‘The international surface temperature initiative global land surface databank: monthly temperature data release description and methods’, Geoscience Data Journal, vol. 1, pp. 75–102.
UN World Food Programme (2016) What causes hunger? [Online]. Available at https://www.wfp.org/ zero-hunger (Accessed 9 October 2016).
Watts, G., Battarbee, R. W. and Bloomfield, J. P. (2015) ‘Climate change and water in the UK – past changes and future prospects’, Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment [Online]. doi: 10.1177/0309133314542957 (Accessed 18 June 2020).
Burckle, L. and Grissino-Mayer, H. D. (2003) ‘Stradivari, violins, tree rings, and the Maunder Minimum: a hypothesis’, Dendrochronologia, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 41–5.
Greenblatt, S. (2006) The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 8th edn, New York and London, Norton.
Hawkins, E. (2016) Guy Stewart Callendar (1898–1964). Discovered global warming in 1938 & suggested that increase in atmospheric CO2 was responsible. Alter ego: @ed_hawkins [Online] Available at https://twitter.com/ GuyCallendar (Accessed 20 October 2016).
Hawkins, E. and Jones, P. (2013) ‘On increasing global temperatures: 75 years after Callendar’, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 139, pp. 1961–3.
IPCC (2013a) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2013b) ‘Annex II: Climate system scenario tables’, Prather, M., Flato, G., Friedlingstein, P. et al. (eds), in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1395–445.
IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D. J. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
Jackson, R. (2016) John Tyndall Natural Philosopher and Mountaineer. Tweets about my life, loves, science, religion, politics, poetry and mountaineering. Alter ego @roland_jackson [Online]. Available at https://twitter.com/ ProfTyndall (Accessed 20 October 2016).
Santer, B., Solomon, S., Ridley, D. et al. (2016) ‘Volcanic effects on climate’, Nature Climate Change, vol. 6, 3–4.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (2016) The Keeling Curve [Online]. Available at https://scripps.ucsd.edu/ programs/ keelingcurve (Accessed 20 October 2016).
Sharma, N., Singh, A., Dhyani, R. and Gaur, S. (2014) ‘Emission reduction from MRTS projects – A case study of Delhi metro’, Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 721–8.
Smith, S. J., van Aardenne, J., Klimont, Z., Andres, R. J., Volke, A. and Delgado Arias, S. (2011) ‘Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850–2005’, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, pp. 1101–16.
Stoel, B. C. and Borman, T. M. (2008) ‘A comparison of wood density between classical Cremonese and modern violins’, PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 7: e2554 [Online]. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002554.
Zerefos, C. S., Gerogiannis, V. T., Balis, D., Zerefos, S. C. and Kazantzidis, A. (2007) ‘Atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions as seen by famous artists and depicted in their paintings’, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7, pp. 4027–42.
Adams, D. (2002) The Salmon of Doubt: Hitchhiking the Galaxy One Last Time, London, Macmillan.
Canadell, J. G. and Schulze, E. D. (2014) ‘Global potential of biospheric carbon management for climate mitigation’, Nature Communications, vol. 5, article no. 5282 [Online]. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6282.
Ellis, A. K. (1977) Teaching and Learning Elementary Social Studies, London, Allyn and Bacon.
Hinkel, J., Lincke, D., Vafeidis, A. T. et al. (2014) ‘Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 3292–7.
IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D. J. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
van Vuuren, D. P., Edmonds, J., Kainuma, M. et al. (2011) ‘The representative concentration pathways: an overview’, Climatic Change, vol. 109, pp. 1–27 [Online]. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z.
Watts, N., Adger, W. N., Agnolucci, P. et al. (2015) ‘Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health’, Lancet, vol. 386, no. 10006, pp. 1861–914 [Online]. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60854-6.
Campbell, G. S., and Norman, J. M. (1998) An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics, 2nd edn, New York, NY, USA, Springer.
Canadell, J. G. and Schulze, E. D. (2014) ‘Global potential of biospheric carbon management for climate mitigation’, Nature Communications, vol. 5, article no. 5282 [Online]. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6282.
Clarke, A. C. and Baxter, S. (2005) Sunstorm, p. 336, London, Del Rey.
Early, J. T. (1989) ‘Space-based solar shield to offset greenhouse effect’, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 567–9.
IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
Lenton, T. M. and Vaughan, N. E. (2009) ‘The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options’, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 15, pp. 5539–61.
Levitt, S. D. and Dubner, S. J. (2009) SuperFreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic Prostitutes, and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance, New York, William Morrow.
McGlashan, N., Workman, M., Caldecott, B. and Shah, N. (2012) Negative Emissions Technologies, London, Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Briefing paper No. 8.
Powell, H. (2007) Oceanus Magazine, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute [Online]. Available at http://www.whoi.edu/ oceanus/ feature/ fertilizing-the-ocean-with-iron (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Robock, A., Marquardt, A., Kravitz, B. and Stenchikov, G. (2009) ‘Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 19, p. L19703.
Schneider, S. H., Mastrandrea, M. D. and Root, T. L. (2011) Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather: Abs-Ero, vol. 1, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Brahic, C. (2007) ‘Company plans ‘eco’ iron dump off Galapagos’, New Scientist, 22 June [Online]. Available at https://www.newscientist.com/ article/ dn12111-company-plans-eco-iron-dump-off-galapagos/ (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Burns, W. C. G. and Strauss, A. L. (eds) (2013) Climate Change Geoengineering: Philosophical Perspectives, Legal Issues, and Governance Frameworks, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
Convention on Biological Diversity (2008) Conference of the Parties 9 Decision IX/16: Biodiversity and climate change [Online]. Available at https://www.cbd.int/ decision/ cop/ default.shtml?id=11659 (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Feynman Chaser - The Key to Science (2008) YouTube video, added by FeynmanChaser [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=b240PGCMwV0 (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Gentle, A. R. and Smith, G. B. (2015) ‘A subambient open roof surface under the mid-summer sun’, Advanced Science, vol. 2, no. 9 [Online]. DOI: 10.1002/advs.201500119.
Global CCS Institute (2015) The Global Status of CCS: Summary Report [Online]. Available at https://www.globalccsinstitute.com/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2018/ 12/ Global-Status-Report_2015_Summary.pdf (Accessed 5 January 2021).
Goodell, J. (2010) How to Cool the Planet: Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth’s Climate, New York, USA, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Hamilton, C. (2015) ‘Geoengineering is no place for corporate profit making’, The Guardian, 17 February [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/ sustainable-business/ 2015/ feb/ 17/ geoengineering-is-no-place-for-corporate-profit-making (Accessed 11 August 2016).
International Energy Agency (2007) IEA Good Practice Guidelines: Bioenergy Project Development & Biomass Supply [Online], Paris, IEA.
International Energy Agency (2015) Key World Energy Statistics 2015 [Online], Paris, IEA. DOI: 10.1787/key_energ_stat-2015-en.
IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
Izrael, Y. A., Zakharov, V. M., Petrov, N. N. et al. (2009) ‘Field experiment on studying solar radiation passing through aerosol layers’, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 265–73.
Izrael, Y. A., Zakharov, V. M., Ivanov, V. N. et al. (2011) ‘A field experiment on modeling the impact of aerosol layers on the variability of solar insolation and meteorological characteristics of the surface layer’, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 705–14.
Keith, D. W., Duren, R. and MacMartin, D. G. (2014) ‘Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 372, no. 2031: 20140175 [Online]. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0175.
LaMonica, M. (2008) ‘Ocean fertilization firm Climos gains financial backing’, CNET, 5 March [Online]. Available at http://www.cnet.com/ news/ ocean-fertilization-firm-climos-gains-financial-backing/ (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Lukacs, M. (2012) ‘World’s biggest geoengineering experiment ‘violates’ UN rules’, The Guardian, 15 October [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/ environment/ 2012/ oct/ 15/ pacific-iron-fertilisation-geoengineering (Accessed 17 December 2020).
National Research Council (2015) Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth, Washington, DC, National Academies Press.
Richardson, L. F. (1922) Weather Prediction by Numerical Process, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press (this edition 2007).
Robock, A., Oman, L. and Stenchikov, G. L. (2008) ‘Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, D16101 [Online]. DOI: 10.1029/2008JD010050.
Schiermeier, Q. (2003) ‘Climate change: The oresman’, Nature, vol. 421, pp. 109–10.
Schiermeier, Q. (2004) ‘Fertilising the sea could combat global warming’, Nature, 22 April [Online]. DOI: 10.1038/news040419-7.
Sharples, S. (2014) ‘City of Sydney is trialling paving roads in Chippendale with pale surfaces to reduce surrounding temperatures’, The Daily Telegraph, 19 June [Online]. Available at https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/ newslocal/ inner-west/ city-of-sydney-is-trialling-paving-roads-in-chippendale-with-pale-surfaces-to-reduce-surrounding-temperatures/ news-story/ 00268489a533a1e7b38928bd47b95ea6 (Accessed 11 August 2016).
Thompson, K. (2008) ‘Carbon discredit’, Popular Science, 1 July [Online]. Available at http://www.popsci.com/ environment/ article/ 2008-07/ carbon-discredit (Accessed 17 December 2020).
US Department of Energy (2014) Archer Daniels Midland Company: CO2 Capture from Biofuels Production and Storage into the Mt. Simon Sandstone [Online], National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/ File%20Library/ Research/ Coal/ major%20demonstrations/ iccus/ ARRA1547.pdf (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Vince, G. (2014) Adventures in the Anthropocene: A Journey to the Heart of the Planet we Made, London, Chatto & Windus.
Williamson, P., Wallace, D. W. R., Law, C. S. et al. (2012) ‘Ocean fertilization for geoengineering: A review of effectiveness, environmental impacts and emerging governance’, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 475–88.
Xiu, P., Thomas, A. C. and Chai, F. (2014) ‘Satellite bio-optical and altimeter comparisons of phytoplankton blooms induced by natural and artificial iron addition in the Gulf of Alaska’, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 145, pp. 38–46.
Box, G. E. P. (1979) ‘Robustness in the strategy of scientific model building’, in Launer, R. L. and Wilkinson, G. N. (eds) Robustness in Statistics, London, Academic Press, pp. 201–36.
Edwards, T. L. (2015) ‘Antarctic ice sheet collapse will cause sea levels to rise. So what's new?’, The Guardian, 18 November [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/ science/ blog/ 2015/ nov/ 18/ antarctic-ice-sheet-collapse-sea-level-rise-whats-new (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Hoffman, A. (1997) Here on Earth, London, Random House UK.
IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
Keith, D. (2013) A Case for Climate Engineering, Cambridge, MA, USA, MIT Press.
Rapley, C. G., De Meyer, K., Carney, J. and Tucke, D. (2014) Time to Change? Climate Science Reconsidered, London, UCL Policy Commission on Communicating Climate Science.
Ritz, C., Edwards, T. L., Durand, G., Payne, A. J., Peyaud, V. and Hindmarsh, R. C. A. (2015) ‘Potential sea-level rise from Antarctic ice-sheet instability constrained by observations’, Nature, vol. 528, pp. 115–18.
Rogelj, J., Meinshausen, M. and Knutti, R. (2012) ‘Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates’, Nature Climate Change, vol. 2, pp. 248–53 [Online]. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate138.
Tallentyre, S. G. (1919) Voltaire in His Letters, New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
Trump, D. (2017) Just heard Foreign Minister of North Korea speak at U.N. If he echoes thoughts of Little Rocket Man, they won't be around much longer! 24 September 2017 [Twitter]. Available at https://twitter.com/ realDonaldTrump/ status/ 911789314169823232 (Accessed 17 December 2020).
Betts, R. (2017) Hi @DavidRoseUK we updated your graph - hope it helps make your next article OK for Wikipedia :) @ed_hawkins @flimsin @dougmcneall #fixedit [image by Betts, R., Hawkins, E., Edwards, T. and McNeall, D.], 9 February 2017 [Twitter]. Available at https://twitter.com/richardabetts/status/829709315275624448 (Accessed 29 March 2017)
Bronowski, J. (1973) The Ascent of Man. London: BBC Books
Climate Action Tracker Partners (2016) Climate Action Tracker [Online]. Available at http://climateactiontracker.org (Accessed 28 November 2020).
Edwards, T. L. (2015b) ‘The lukewarmers don’t deny climate change. But they say the outlook’s fine’, The Observer, 3 May [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/ science/ 2015/ may/ 03/ climate-change-scepticism-denial-lukewarmers (Accessed 28 November 2020).
IPCC (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K. et al. (eds), Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
Jenner, K. (2015) [Image containing text], 26 May [Twitter].
Kahan, D. M., Jenkins‐Smith, H. C. and Braman, D. (2011) ‘Cultural cognition of scientific consensus’, Journal of Risk Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 147–74 [Online]. DOI: 10.1080/13669877.2010.511246.
Kahan, D. M., Jenkins‐Smith, H. C., Tarantola, T., Silva, C. L. and Braman, D. (2015) ‘Geoengineering and climate change polarization: testing a two-channel model of science communication’, Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 658, pp. 193–222 [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/0002716214559002.
Keith, D. (2013) A Case for Climate Engineering, Cambridge, MA, USA, MIT Press.
Mercer, A. M., Keith, D. W. and Sharp, J. D. (2011) ‘Public understanding of solar radiation management’, Environmental Research Letters, vol. 6, no. 4 [Online]. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/044006.
Pierrehumbert, R. T. (2015) Climate Hacking Is Barking Mad [Online], Slate. Available at http://www.slate.com/ articles/ health_and_science/ science/ 2015/ 02/ nrc_geoengineering_report_climate_hacking_is_dangerous_and_barking_mad.html (Accessed 28 November 2020).
Ritz, C., Edwards, T. L., Durand, G., Payne, A. J., Peyaud, V. and Hindmarsh, R. C. A. (2015) ‘Potential sea-level rise from Antarctic ice-sheet instability constrained by observations’, Nature, vol. 528, pp. 115–18.
Rogelj, J., Meinshausen, M. and Knutti, R. (2012) ‘Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates’, Nature Climate Change, vol. 2, pp. 248–53 [Online]. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate138.
Sanford, T., Frumhoff, P. C., Luers, A. and Gulledge, J. (2014) ‘The climate policy narrative for a dangerously warming world’, Nature Climate Change, vol. 4, pp. 164–6 [Online]. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2148.
Scheer, D. and Renn, O. (2014) ‘Public perception of geoengineering and its consequences for public debate’, Climatic Change, vol. 125, p. 305 [Online]. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1177-1.
Stilgoe, J. (2015) Experiment Earth: Responsible Innovation in Geoengineering, Abingdon, United Kingdom and New York, Routledge.