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In the night sky: Orion
In the night sky: Orion

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This course was written by Monica Grady and Phillipa Smith.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated in the acknowledgements section, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] .

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:


Figure 1 © NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA

Figure 2 © NASA’s John F. Kennedy Space Center and the Space Telescope Science Institute

Figure 5 © NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz), R. Bouwens (University of California, Santa Cruz and Leiden University), and the HUDF09 Team

Figure 6 © Yosuke Tsuruta in Flickr

Figure 7 © NASA/Jason Ware

Figure 9 © Alex Cherney ( 

Figure 10 © WallyPacholka / 

Figure 11 © MASIL Imaging Team 

Figure 13 © E.Feigelson & K.Getman (PSU) et al., CXO, NASA 

Figure 14 © NASA, JPL-Caltech, UCLA 

Figure 15 © László Francsics 

Figure 16 © Donald Judge, via Flickr (Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license 

Figure 17 adapted from © NASA public domain in Wikipedia ( 

Figure 18 © J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl ( 

Figure 19 © NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation 

Figure 20 © ESO/B. Tafreshi 

Audio and video

3.2.3 Colliding and merging galaxies video: NASA; ESA; G. Besla, Columbia University; and R. van der Marel, STScI

3.2.1 Different types of galaxy: video © The Open University

3.2.4 Galaxies gone wild: video: © The Open University and its licensor – images by Hubble Telescope © NASA

3.3.4 Behind the scenes with Monica Grady video: © The Open University and its licensors.

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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