This free course was written by Andy Lane.
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Box 1: Martin, D. and Rosenhead, J. (2002) ‘Stafford Beer: world leader in the development of operational research, who combined management systems with cybernetics’, The Guardian, 4 September. © Dick Martin and Jonathan Rosenhead.
Figure 2: Richmond, B. (1998) ‘Closed loop thinking’, The Systems Thinker, vol. 9, no. 4, Pegasus Communications, Inc.
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