Science, Maths & Technology

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Everyday maths 1

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# Session 3: Handling data

## 1 Collecting data

In the introduction we mentioned the different ways you can display information – for example, in tables, diagrams, charts or graphs. Before you can create any of these, however, you need to collect the information to put in them.

One way of collecting information is through a survey. Have you ever been stopped in the street by someone doing a survey, or filled one in online?

You’ll often see surveys by YouGov [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] , which is one example of a market research and data company, referred to on TV news programmes or in newspapers. YouGov commissions surveys on various topics, including the following (which you may want to open in a new window or tab):

A survey is a method of collecting data. But once you’ve collected the data, it needs to be organised and displayed in a way that’s easy to understand.

This is something that’s straightforward to do with discrete data – that is, data made up of things that are separate and can be counted. For example:

• the number of people on a bus
• the number of cars in a car park
• the number of leaves on a tree.

A tally chart is a useful way of collecting information. A tally chart consists of a series of tallies. It works like this:

• For each thing, or unit, that you count – each person on a bus, each car in a car park, each leaf on a tree, or whatever – you make a tally mark like this:

• When you count up to five units, you ‘cross out’ the other four tally marks like this:

• You then continue to count units in groups of fives, as follows:

= 4

= 5

= 6

= 10

### Box _unit4.1.1

Note: You might have heard of something called a tally table. Tally charts and tally tables are the same thing.

Now try the following activity. Remember to check your answers once you have completed the questions.

### Activity _unit4.1.1 Activity 1: Rewriting numbers as tallies

Write the following numbers in tally form:

1. 3
2. 7
3. 9
4. 14
5. 18

### Case study _unit4.1.1 Example: Using a tally chart

You can use tally charts to record data when you carry out surveys and collect data.

Have you ever seen people at the side of a road doing a traffic survey? They could be recording the number of people in each car, and at the end of the survey they could add up the tallies and record the totals. Their tally chart would look something like this:

Table _unit4.1.1
Number of people in car Number of cars Total
1 4
2 3
3 1
4 2
5+ 1

So why use tally charts? It’s because they’re a quick and simple way of recording data.

Now try the following activities. Remember to check your answers once you have completed the questions.

### Box _unit4.1.2

Hint: Tick or cross off each entry as you put it into your tally chart. This will help you stop losing your place.

### Activity _unit4.1.2 Activity 2: Creating a tally chart

Twenty people were asked in a survey how many people lived in their house. These were the answers:

 2 3 1 4 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 3 4 2 2 3 1 3 2 2

Use the information in the table above to create your own tally chart of how many people live in a house. Your tally chart should be arranged as follows:

Table _unit4.1.3
Number of people in the house Number of responses

Table _unit4.1.4
Number of people in the house Number of responses
1
2
3
4

### Activity _unit4.1.3 Activity 3: Creating a tally chart

The following information is a record of the colours of cars in a car park one lunchtime:

 red yellow red blue white blue black white red green red white green black blue white blue red red black

Draw a tally chart to present the data.

Your table should look like this:

Table _unit4.1.6 Number of cars with certain colours in a car park one lunchtime
Colour of car Number of cars Total
Black 3
Blue 4
Green 2
Red 6
White 4
Yellow 1

### Summary

In this section you have learned about how tally charts are used.