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# 6.2 Calculating the p-value

To calculate the p-value you must modify the z-score table to highlight the area right of z, instead of the area left of z. The area left of z and the area right of z add up to 100% (confidence level). In order to calculate the area right of z, you simply need to subtract the area left of z from 100%. You can perform this calculation using Excel, as described in the following steps.

Step 1: Set up a new table with the exact layout of the previous z-score table used in Activity 5.

Figure 26 Creating ‘Area right of z’ table step 1

Step 2: Use the Excel function to calculate the values: the z-score in the ‘Area right of z’ table equals 1 minus the corresponding z-score in ‘Area left of z’ table.

Figure 27 Creating ‘Area right of z’ table step 2

Step 3: Apply this calculation to all the cells in the Excel sheet.

Figure 28 Creating ‘Area right of z’ table step 3

Using these steps and the z-score table (Figure 28) that highlights the area left of z, you can create a new z-score table to highlight the area right of z..

 Z 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 -3 0.9987 0.9987 0.9987 0.9988 0.9988 0.9989 0.9989 0.9989 0.999 0.999 -2.9 0.9981 0.9982 0.9983 0.9983 0.9984 0.9984 0.9985 0.9985 0.9986 0.9986 -2.8 0.9974 0.9975 0.9976 0.9977 0.9977 0.9978 0.9979 0.998 0.998 0.9981 -2.7 0.9965 0.9966 0.9967 0.9968 0.9969 0.997 0.9971 0.9972 0.9973 0.9974 -2.6 0.9953 0.9955 0.9956 0.9957 0.9959 0.996 0.9961 0.9962 0.9963 0.9964 -2.5 0.9938 0.994 0.9941 0.9943 0.9945 0.9946 0.9948 0.9949 0.9951 0.9952 -2.4 0.9918 0.992 0.9922 0.9925 0.9927 0.9929 0.9931 0.9932 0.9934 0.9936 -2.3 0.9893 0.9896 0.9898 0.9901 0.9904 0.9906 0.9909 0.9911 0.9913 0.9916 -2.2 0.9861 0.9865 0.9868 0.9871 0.9875 0.9878 0.9881 0.9884 0.9887 0.989 -2.1 0.9821 0.9826 0.983 0.9834 0.9838 0.9842 0.9846 0.985 0.9854 0.9857 -2 0.9773 0.9778 0.9783 0.9788 0.9793 0.9798 0.9803 0.9808 0.9812 0.9817 -1.9 0.9713 0.9719 0.9726 0.9732 0.9738 0.9744 0.975 0.9756 0.9762 0.9767 -1.8 0.9641 0.9649 0.9656 0.9664 0.9671 0.9678 0.9686 0.9693 0.97 0.9706 -1.7 0.9554 0.9564 0.9573 0.9582 0.9591 0.9599 0.9608 0.9616 0.9625 0.9633 -1.6 0.9452 0.9463 0.9474 0.9485 0.9495 0.9505 0.9515 0.9525 0.9535 0.9545 -1.5 0.9332 0.9345 0.9357 0.937 0.9382 0.9394 0.9406 0.9418 0.943 0.9441 -1.4 0.9192 0.9207 0.9222 0.9236 0.9251 0.9265 0.9279 0.9292 0.9306 0.9319 -1.3 0.9032 0.9049 0.9066 0.9082 0.9099 0.9115 0.9131 0.9147 0.9162 0.9177 -1.2 0.8849 0.8869 0.8888 0.8907 0.8925 0.8944 0.8962 0.898 0.8997 0.9015 -1.1 0.8643 0.8665 0.8686 0.8708 0.8729 0.8749 0.877 0.879 0.881 0.883 -1 0.8413 0.8438 0.8461 0.8485 0.8508 0.8531 0.8554 0.8577 0.8599 0.8621 -0.9 0.8159 0.8186 0.8212 0.8238 0.8264 0.8289 0.8315 0.834 0.8365 0.8389 -0.8 0.7881 0.791 0.7939 0.7967 0.7996 0.8023 0.8051 0.8079 0.8106 0.8133 -0.7 0.758 0.7612 0.7642 0.7673 0.7704 0.7734 0.7764 0.7794 0.7823 0.7852 -0.6 0.7258 0.7291 0.7324 0.7357 0.7389 0.7422 0.7454 0.7486 0.7518 0.7549 -0.5 0.6915 0.695 0.6985 0.7019 0.7054 0.7088 0.7123 0.7157 0.719 0.7224 -0.4 0.6554 0.6591 0.6628 0.6664 0.67 0.6736 0.6772 0.6808 0.6844 0.6879 -0.3 0.6179 0.6217 0.6255 0.6293 0.6331 0.6368 0.6406 0.6443 0.648 0.6517 -0.2 0.5793 0.5832 0.5871 0.591 0.5948 0.5987 0.6026 0.6064 0.6103 0.6141 -0.1 0.5398 0.5438 0.5478 0.5517 0.5557 0.5596 0.5636 0.5675 0.5714 0.5754 0 0.5 0.504 0.508 0.512 0.516 0.5199 0.5239 0.5279 0.5319 0.5359
 Z 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0 0.5 0.496 0.492 0.488 0.484 0.4801 0.4761 0.4721 0.4681 0.4641 0.1 0.4602 0.4562 0.4522 0.4483 0.4443 0.4404 0.4364 0.4325 0.4286 0.4247 0.2 0.4207 0.4168 0.4129 0.409 0.4052 0.4013 0.3936 0.8936 0.3897 0.3859 0.3 0.3821 0.3783 0.3745 0.3707 0.3669 0.3632 0.3594 0.3557 0.352 0.3483 0.4 0.3446 0.3409 0.3372 0.3336 0.33 0.3264 0.3228 0.3192 0.3156 0.3121 0.5 0.3085 0.305 0.3015 0.2981 0.2946 0.2912 0.2877 0.2843 0.281 0.2776 0.6 0.2743 0.2709 0.2676 0.2643 0.2611 0.2578 0.2546 0.2514 0.2483 0.2451 0.7 0.242 0.2389 0.2358 0.2327 0.2296 0.2266 0.2236 0.2206 0.2177 0.2148 0.8 0.2119 0.209 0.2061 0.2033 0.2005 0.1977 0.1949 0.1922 0.1894 0.1867 0.9 0.1841 0.1814 0.1788 0.1762 0.1736 0.1711 0.1685 0.166 0.1635 0.1611 1 0.1587 0.1562 0.1539 0.1515 0.1492 0.1469 0.1446 0.1423 0.1401 0.1379 1.1 0.1357 0.1335 0.1314 0.1292 0.1271 0.1251 0.123 0.121 0.119 0.117 1.2 0.1151 0.1131 0.1112 0.1093 0.1075 0.1056 0.1038 0.102 0.1003 0.0985 1.3 0.0968 0.0951 0.0934 0.0918 0.0901 0.0885 0.0869 0.0853 0.0838 0.0823 1.4 0.0808 0.0793 0.0778 0.0764 0.0749 0.0735 0.0721 0.0708 0.0694 0.0681 1.5 0.0668 0.0655 0.0643 0.063 0.0618 0.0606 0.0594 0.0582 0.0571 0.0559 1.6 0.0548 0.0537 0.0526 0.0516 0.0505 0.0495 0.0485 0.0475 0.0465 0.0455 1.7 0.0446 0.0436 0.0427 0.0418 0.0409 0.0401 0.0392 0.0384 0.0375 0.0367 1.8 0.0359 0.0351 0.0344 0.0336 0.0329 0.0322 0.0314 0.0307 0.0301 0.0294 1.9 0.0287 0.0281 0.0274 0.0268 0.0262 0.0256 0.025 0.0244 0.0239 0.0233 2 0.0228 0.0222 0.0217 0.0212 0.0207 0.0202 0.0197 0.0192 0.0188 0.0183 2.1 0.0179 0.0174 0.017 0.0166 0.0162 0.0158 0.0154 0.015 0.0146 0.0143 2.2 0.0139 0.0136 0.0132 0.0129 0.0125 0.0122 0.0119 0.0116 0.0113 0.011 2.3 0.0107 0.0104 0.0102 0.0099 0.0096 0.0094 0.0091 0.0089 0.0087 0.0084 2.4 0.0082 0.008 0.0078 0.0075 0.0073 0.0071 0.0069 0.0068 0.0066 0.0064 2.5 0.0062 0.006 0.0059 0.0057 0.0055 0.0054 0.0052 0.0051 0.0049 0.0048 2.6 0.0047 0.0045 0.0044 0.0043 0.0041 0.004 0.0039 0.0038 0.0037 0.0036 2.7 0.0035 0.0034 0.0033 0.0032 0.0031 0.003 0.0029 0.0028 0.0027 0.0026 2.8 0.0026 0.0025 0.0024 0.0023 0.0023 0.0022 0.0021 0.0021 0.002 0.0019 2.9 0.0019 0.0018 0.0018 0.0017 0.0016 0.0016 0.0015 0.0015 0.0014 0.0014 3 0.0013 0.0013 0.0013 0.0012 0.0012 0.0011 0.0011 0.0011 0.001 0.001

Using Table 5, you can determine an exact p-value for the sample mean. In order to illustrate this point, try to solve the problems in the following section.