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The use of force in international law
The use of force in international law

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Alvarez, J. E. (2008) ‘The schizophrenias of R2P’ in Alston, P. and MacDonald, E. (eds) Human Rights, Intervention, and the Use of Force, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Annan, K. (1999) ‘Two concepts of sovereignty’ [Online], The Economist. Available at (Accessed 3 January 2013).
Annan, K. (2000) ‘We the Peoples: the role of the United Nations in the twenty-first century’, report of the Secretary-General of the UN, UN Doc. A/54/2000.
BBC (2012) Timeline: Siege of Srebrenica [Online], BBC News Europe. Available at (Accessed 2 January 2013).
Cassese, A. (1999) ‘Ex iniuria ius oritur: are we moving towards international legitimation of forcible humanitarian countermeasures in the world community?’, European Journal of International Law, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 23–30.
Chomsky, N. (1994) ‘Humanitarian Intervention’ [Online], Boston Review, January. Available at (Accessed 2 January 2013).
Dinstein, Y. (2011) War, Aggression and Self-Defence, New York, Cambridge University Press.
Douzinas, C. (2000) The End of Human Rights, Oxford/Portland, Hart Publishing.
Von Elbe J. (1939) ‘The Evolution of the Concept of the Just War in International Law’, American Journal of International Law, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 665–88.
Godec, S. T. (2010) ‘Between rhetoric and reality: exploring the impact of humanitarian intervention upon sexual violence- post-conflict sex trafficking in Kosovo’, International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 92, no. 877, pp. 235–58.
Holzgrefe, J. L. (2003) ‘The humanitarian intervention debate’, in Holzgrefe, J.L. and Keohane, R. O. (eds) Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
ICISS (2001) The Responsibility to Protect, Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Ottawa, International Development Research Centre.
Lauterpacht, H. (1952) ‘The Problem of the Revision of the Law of War’, British Yearbook of International Law, vol. 29, pp. 360–82.
Reichberg, G. M., Syse, H. and Begby, E. (2006) The Ethics of War, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.
Van Schaack, B. (2011) ‘The Crime of Aggression and Humanitarian Intervention on Behalf of Women’, International Criminal Law Review, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 477-93.
Tesón, F. (2003) ‘The liberal case for humanitarian intervention’ in Holzgrefe, J.L. and Keohane, R. O. (eds) Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
UN (2005) ‘Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General’ [Online], Geneva, United Nations. Available at (Accessed 3 January 2013).
US Government (2002) The National Security Strategy of the United States of America [Online]. Available at (Accessed 2 January 2012).
Webster, D. and Fox, H. S. (1857) ‘Correspondence between Great Britain and the United States, respecting the Arrest and Imprisonment of Mr. McLeod, for the Destruction of the steamboat Caroline – March, April 1841’ British and Foreign State Papers 1840–1841, vol. 29, pp. 1126–1142 [Online]. Available at (Accessed 2 January 2013).
Case of the steamer Caroline 29 Brit & For St Papers.
Other jurisdictions
Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Uganda) ICJ Rep 2005
Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Advisory Opinion ICJ Rep 2004
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion ICJ Rep 1996
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States of America) ICJ Rep 1986.
Treaties and conventions
Geneva Convention 1864
Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907
Covenant of the League of Nations 1919
Kellogg–Briand Pact 1928
UN Charter 1945
Geneva Conventions I–IV 1949
Additional Protocols I and II to the Geneva Conventions 1977
Additional Protocol III to the Geneva Conventions 2005.
United Nations
UN Security Council (UNSC):
UNSC Res 1325 of 31 October 2000.
UNSC Res 1373 of 28 September 2001.
UNSC Res 1820 of 19 June 2008.
UNSC Res 1973 of 17 March 2011.