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Physical and mental health for young children
Physical and mental health for young children

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2.4 Exosystem: the child’s wider community

This exerts powerful factors that can influence health. For example, poor quality housing can cause respiratory problems, and in extreme cases can cause death. This was illustrated by the case of two-year-old, Awaab Ishak, who died in 2020 following respiratory difficulties. At the inquest into his death, the coroner ruled that his death was as a consequence of coming into contact with the mould that appeared on the walls of the poorly ventilated one bedroom flat he lived in with his family (BBC, 2022). The amenities that are available within a child’s community can have an impact on children’s health. Outdoor spaces that are well-maintained and safe give the opportunity for children to be active, which helps with physical and mental health.

A photograph of a playground
Figure 5 A well-maintained and safe playground

The quality and availability of services for children impacts on their health. Children’s centres offer education and health services to babies and young children. Pre-school settings and schools provide health promoting activities to children.