Moons of our Solar System
Moons of our Solar System

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

2.8 Results from Chandrayaan-1 and LCROSS

The hypothesis that Chandrayaan-1 and its Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument had detected water was still debated but their findings were confirmed by NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft (later in 2009) which observed hydrogen all over the lunar surface.

Most recently, in the summer of 2009, NASA launched its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, at the same time as its Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission.

LCROSS consisted of two components: a shepherding spacecraft and a Centaur rocket stage. The Centaur rocket section was deliberately crashed into the lunar south pole crater Cabeus. The shepherding spacecraft was able to fly overhead immediately after the crater impact and record the composition of the debris plume kicked up from the surface by the force of the impact.

In November 2009, the LCROSS mission scientists were able to announce that they had made the first direct observations of water-ice particles on the Moon in this ejecta plume, and later calculated that Cabeus crater contains between 3 and 9% (the LCROSS team determined the content of the plume created was 5.6 ± 2.9%) water by mass, much more than previously thought. In addition to the water observations, hydrocarbons of low molecular mass were also measured in the plume, suggesting that perhaps other volatile compounds can exist near the surface of the Moon too.

Described image
Figure 14 In this composite map of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper’s findings, water and hydroxyl are coloured blue and purple, and orange is the mineral pyroxene, which contains no water.

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371