Effects of pollutants on the aquatic environment
Effects of pollutants on the aquatic environment

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

References

Au, D.W.T., Pollino, C.A., Wu, R.S.S., Shin, P.K.S., Lau, S.T.F. and Tang, J.Y.M. (2004) ‘Chronic effects of suspended solids on gill structure, osmoregulation, growth, and triiodothyronine in juvenile green grouper Epinephelus coioides’, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 266, pp. 255–64.
Baron, S. (1996) Medical Microbiology, 4th edn, Galveston, University of Texas Medical Branch.
Burkhardt-Holm, P. (2010) ‘Endocrine disrupters and water quality: a state-of-the-art review’, International Journal of Water Resources Development, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 477–93.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Parasites – Cryptosporidium (also known as ‘Crypto’) [Online], US Government. Available at www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/gen_info/infect.html (Accessed 5 June 2013).
EIFAC (1968) Water Quality Criteria for European Freshwater Fish: Report on Extreme pH Values and Inland Fisheries [Online], Rome, European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission. Available at www.fao.org/docrep/017/71852e/71852e.pdf (Accessed 11 March 2013).
Environment Agency (2013) What is Inland Oil Pollution? Key Issues as the Environment Agency Sees It [Online]. Available at www.environment-agency.gov.uk/research/library/position/41233.aspx (Accessed 6 June 2013).
EPA (2000) ‘Generalized short-term effects of acidity on fish’, National Water Quality Inventory: 1998 Report to Congress, Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
EPA (2012) Basic Information About Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Drinking Water [Online], Environmental Protection Agency, USA. Available at water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/polychlorinated-biphenyls.cfm (Accessed 6 June 2013).
EU (1998) ‘Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption’, Official Journal of the European Communities, Brussels, European Union.
Faber, R.A. and Hickey, J.J. (1973) ‘Eggshell thinning, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mercury in inland aquatic bird eggs, 1969 and 1970’, Pesticide Monitoring Journal, vol. 7, pp. 27–39.
FAO (n.d.) ‘Pesticides as water pollutants’ in Control of Water Pollution from Agriculture [Online], Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at www.fao.org/docrep/w2598e/w2598e07.htm (Accessed 6 June 2013).
Fry, D.M. and Toone, C.K. (1981) ‘DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos’, Science, vol. 213, pp. 992–4.
GOV.UK (n.d.) Reducing and Controlling Agricultural Pollution [Online], Crown Copyright. Available at www.gov.uk/government/policies/improving-water-quality/supporting-pages/reducing-and-controlling-agricultural-pollution (Accessed 15 April 2013).
Hunter, P.R., Waite, M. and Ronchi, E. (2003) Drinking Water and Infectious Disease, London, IWA Publishing.
Jephcott, A.E., Begg, N.T. and Baker, I.A. (1986) ‘Outbreak of Giardiasis associated with mains water in the United Kingdom’, The Lancet, vol. 327, no. 8483, pp. 730–2.
Jobling, S., Coey, S., Whitmore, J.G., Kime, D.E., Van Look, K.J.W., McAllister, B.G., Beresford, N., Henshaw, A.C., Brighty, G., Tyler, C.R. and Sumpter, J.P. (2002) ‘Wild intersex roach (Rutilus rutilus) have reduced fertility’, Biology of Reproduction, vol. 67, pp. 515–24.
Morner, J., Bos, R. and Fredrix, M. (2002) Reducing and Eliminating the Use of Persistent Organic Pesticides [Online], Geneva, Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Available at www.unep.org/hazardoussubstances/Portals/9/Pesticides/POPred_E.pdf (Accessed 6 June 2013).
NOAA (2013) A "red tide" is a common term used for a harmful algal bloom [Online], National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. Available at oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/redtide.html (Accessed 6 June 2013).
Porteous, A. (2008) Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology, 4th edn, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe, C., Griffin, P.M. and Swerdlow, D.L. (2004) ‘Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002’, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4 [Online]. Available from wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/11/4/04-0739.htm (Accessed 5 June 2013).
Sánchez, D.J., Bellés, M., Albina, M.L., Sirvent, J.J. and Domingo, J.L. (2001) ‘Nephrotoxicity of simultaneous exposure to mercury and uranium in comparison to individual effects of these metals in rats’, Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 84, nos 1–3, pp. 139–54.
Skipton, S. and Hay, D. (1998) G98-1369 Drinking Water: Nitrate and Methemoglobinemia (‘Blue Baby’ Syndrome) [Online], University of Nebraska – Lincoln. Available at digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2429&context=extensionhist (Accessed 21 February 2013).
Stockholm Convention (2008) About the Convention [Online]. Available at chm.pops.int/Convention/tabid/54/Default.aspx (Accessed 6 June 2013).
Stumm, W. and Lee, G.F. (1961) ‘Oxygenation of ferrous iron’, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 53, pp. 143–6.
UNEP (n.d.) ‘Where nutrients come from and how they cause eutrophication’ in Water Quality: The Impact of Eutrophication [Online], Lakes and Reservoirs vol. 3, United Nations Environment Programme. Available at www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/short_series/lakereservoirs-3/3.asp (Accessed 11 March 2013).
Ward, M.H., Kilfoy, B., Sinha, R., Hollenbeck, A.R., Schatzkin, A. and Cross, A. (2011) ‘Ingestion of nitrate and nitrite and risk of stomach cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study’, Epidemiology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. S107–8.
Water UK (2011) Cryptosporidium [Online]. Available at www.water.org.uk/home/policy/positions/cryptosporidium (Accessed 5 June 2013).
WHO (2002) The World Health Report [Online], World Health Organization. Available at www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf (Accessed 23 January 2013).
WHO (2013) Helminths [Online], World Health Organization. Available at www.who.int/tdr/diseases-topics/helminths/en/ (Accessed 6 June 2013).
Wilson, R.S. (1988) ‘A survey of the zinc-polluted River Nent (Cumbria) and the East and West Allen (Northumberland), England, using chironomid pupal exuviae’, Spixiana, Supplement 14, pp. 167–74 [Online]. Available at www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/SpixSupp_014_0167-0174.pdf (Accessed 11 March 2013).

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371