Exploring the relationship between anxiety and depression
Exploring the relationship between anxiety and depression

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Exploring the relationship between anxiety and depression


Alpha-Stim (2019a) ‘NHS Study of Alpha-Stim for Anxiety Can Revolutionize Mental Health Care in the UK: Study Proves Alpha-Stim Treatment is As Effective and More Cost Efficient Than Current First-Line Therapy’, Alpha-Stim, June 2019. Available online at https://www.alpha-stim.com/2019/06/nhs-study-of-alpha-stim-for-anxiety-can-revolutionize-mental-health-care-in-the-uk/ (Accessed 09-07-2019).
Alpha-Stim (2019b) ‘Clinical effectiveness and cost minimisation model of Alpha-Stim cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treatment seeking patients with moderate to severe generalised anxiety disorder’, Alpha-Stim. Available online at https://www.alpha-stim.com/clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-minimisation-model-of-alpha-stim-cranial-electrotherapy-stimulation-in-treatment-seeking-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-generalised-anxiety-disorder/ (Accessed 09-07-2019).
Asselmann, E. and Beesdo-Baum, K. (2015) ‘Predictors of the course of anxiety disorders in adolescents and young adults’, Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 17, no. 2, article 7. doi: 10.1007/s11920-014-0543-z.
Barclay, T.H. and Barclay, R.D. (2014) ‘A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression’, Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 164, pp. 171-17.
Benning, T.B. (2015) ‘Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry’, Advances in Medical Education and Practice, vol. 6, pp. 347-352.
Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L. and Feusner, J. (2008) ‘A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder’, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 412-7.
Carhart -Harris, R.L., Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C.M., Erritzow, D., Kaelen, M., Bloomfield, M., Rickard, J.A., Forbes, B., Feilding, A., Taylor, D., Piling, S., Curran, V.H. and Nutt, D.J. (2016) ‘Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study’, Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 619-27.
Cowen, P. (2016) ‘Altered states: psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression’, Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 592-3.
Craske, M. G. and Stein, M. B. (2016) 'Anxiety disorders', The Lancet, vol. 388, no. 10063, pp. 3048-3059.
Creswell, C., Waite, P., Cooper, P.J. (2014) ‘Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents’, Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 674-8.
Gregory, A. (2019) ‘No bigger than a mobile phone, the Alpha-Stim zaps anxiety with soothing electric currents’, The Sunday Times, May 26. Available online at: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/mobile-phone-sized-alpha-stim-zaps-anxiety-with-electric-currents-z0jhh82fp (Accessed 09-07-2019)
International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision, ICD-11 (2019) '6A73 Mixed depressive and anxiety disorder', World Health Organization, April 2019. Available online at: https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en#/http://id.who.int/icd/entity/314468192 (Accessed 09-07-2019).
Jarvis, D. (2017) ‘Stressed teachers offered electric shock therapy to combat anxiety and depression’, The Telegraph, July 1. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2017/07/01/stressed-teachers-offered-electric-shock-therapy-combat-anxiety/ (Accessed 09-07-2019)
Kavirajan, H.C., Lueck, K. and Chuang, K. (2014) ‘Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for depression’, Cochrane Database Systematic Review, vol. 8, no. 7, article CD010521. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010521.pub2.
Kirby, T. (2015) ‘Ketamine for depression: the highs and lows’, Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 783-4.
Kirsch, D.L. and Nichols, F. (2013) ‘Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia’, Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 169-76.
Kirsch, D.L., Price, L.R., Nichols, F., Marksberry, J.A. and Platoni, K.T. (2014) ‘Military service member and veteran self reports of efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, insomnia, and depression’, US Army Medical Department Journal, Oct-Dec; pp. 46-54.
Malhi, G.S., Byrow, Y., Cassidy, F., Cipriani, A., Demyttenaere, K., Frye, M.A., Gitlin, M., Kennedy, S.H., Ketter, T.A., Lam, R.W., McShane, R., Mitchell, A.J., Ostacher, M.J., Rizvi, S.J., Thase, M.E. and Tohen, M. (2016) ‘Ketamine: stimulating antidepressant treatment?’ British Journal of Psychiatry Open, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. e5-e9.
Malhi, G. S. and Mann, J. J. (2018) 'Depression', The Lancet, vol. 392, no. 10161, pp. 2299-2312.
Maron, E. and Nutt, D. (2015) ‘Biological predictors of pharmacological therapy in anxiety disorders’, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 305-17.
Moffitt, T.E., Harrington, H., Caspi, A., Kom-Cohen, K., Goldberg, D., Gregory, A.M. and Poulton, R. (2007) ‘Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years’, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 651–660.
Möller, H.J., Bandelow, B., Volz, H.P., Barnikol, U.B., Seifritz, E. and Kasper, S. (2016) ‘The relevance of "mixed anxiety and depression" as a diagnostic category in clinical practice’, European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 266, no. 8, pp. 725-36.
Morriss, R., Xydopoulos, G., Craven, M., Price, L. and Fordham, R. (2019) ‘Clinical effectiveness and cost minimisation model of Alpha-Stim cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treatment seeking patients with moderate to severe generalised anxiety disorder’, Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 253, pp. 426-437.
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (2017) 'East midlands lead commercial study to help treatment of anxiety with a device', June 22. Available at: https://www.nihr.ac.uk/news/east-midlands-leads-commercial-study-to-help-treatment-of-anxiety-with-a-device/6381 (Accessed 09-07-2019)
Orvaschel, H., Lewinsohn, P.M. and Seeley, J.R. (1995) ‘Continuity of psychopathology in a community sample of adolescents’, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1525-35.
Rucker, J.J., Jelen, L.A., Flynn, S., Frowde, K.D. and Young, A.H. (2016) ‘Psychedelics in the treatment of unipolar mood disorders: a systematic review’, Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1220-1229.
Sayid, R. and Jarvis, D. (2016) ‘Shock therapy device to treat depression, stress and anxiety being trialled by the NHS’, The Mirror, May 5. Available online at: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/shock-therapy-device-treat-depression-7906206 (Accessed 09-07-2019)
Silk, J.S., Davis, S., McMakin, D.L., Dahl, R.E. and Forbes, E.E. (2012) ‘Why do anxious children become depressed teenagers? The role of social evaluative threat and reward processing’, Psychological Medicine, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 2095-107.
Strudwick, P. (2010) ‘Treating anxiety with the Alpha-Stim: Patrick Strudwick tests a new device that relieves anxiety and manages pain via "electrotherapy"’, The Telegraph, August 2. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/lifestyle/wellbeing/7918685/Treating-anxiety-the-Alpha-Stim.html (Accessed 09-07-2019)
Wighton, K. (2016) 'Magic mushroom compound tested for treatment-resistant depression', Imperial College London, Press Release. Available at: www.imperial.ac.uk/news/172407/magic-mushroom-compound-tested-treatment-resistant-depression/ (Accessed 09-07-2019).

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus