Exploring health: is your lifestyle really to blame?
Exploring health: is your lifestyle really to blame?

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.


Acheson, D. (1998) Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, London, Stationery Office.
Arno, A. and Thomas, S. (2016) ‘The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis’, BMC Public Health, vol. 16, no. 676 [Online]. Available at https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/ articles/ 10.1186/ s12889-016-3272-x [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed 2 August 2019).
Baruth, M., Sharpe, P. A., Parra-Medina, D. and Wilcox, S. (2014) ‘Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment’, Women & Health, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 336–353.
Buck, D. and Frosini, F. (2012) Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviours over Time: Implications for Policy and Practice, London, The King’s Fund.
Cohen, M. (2018) ‘It’s poverty, not individual choice, that is driving extraordinary obesity levels’, The Conversation, 19 February [Online]. Available at https://theconversation.com/ its-poverty-not-individual-choice-that-is-driving-extraordinary-obesity-levels-91447 (Accessed 14 May 2019).
Department of Health (2011) Healthy Lives, Healthy People: A Call to Action on Obesity in England, London, Department of Health.
Department of Health (2012) An Update on the Government’s Approach to Tackling Obesity, London, National Audit Office.
Department of Health and Social Security (1980) Inequalities in Health: Report of a Working Group chaired by Sir Douglas Black, Department of Health and Social Security, London.
Eknoyan, G. (2008) ‘Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874) – the average man and indices of obesity’, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47–51.
Elliott, E. and Williams, G. (2008) ‘Developing public sociology through health impact assessment’, Sociology of Health & Illness, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1–16.
Gordon, O. (2016) ‘The Oxford professor who warns that sitting is the new smoking’, Oxford Today, 3 August.
Government Office for Science (2007) Foresight – Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Project Report, London, Government Office for Science.
Jebb, S. A., Aveyard, P. N., and Hawkes, C. (2013) ‘The evolution of policy and actions to tackle obesity in England’, Obesity Reviews, vol. 14, no. S2, pp. 42–59.
Jensen, M. (2007) ‘Defining lifestyle’, Environmental Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 63–73.
Johnson, S. L., Goodell, L. S., Williams, K., Power, T. G. and Hughes, S. O. (2015) ‘Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers’ considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal’, Appetite, vol. 88, pp. 24–32.
Lingetun, L., Fungbrant, M., Claesson, M. and Baggens, C. (2017) ‘“I just want to be normal” – a qualitative study of pregnant women’s blogs who present themselves as overweight or obese’, Midwifery, vol. 49, pp. 65–71.
Lucassen, M., Guntupalli, A., Clark, T., Fenaughty, J., Denny, S., Fleming, T., Smith, M. and Utter, J. (2019) Body size and weight, and the nutrition and activity behaviors of sexual and gender minority youth: Findings and implications from New Zealand, Public Health Nutrition, In-Press.
Marmot, M. (2010) ‘Fair Society, Healthy Lives: Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post-2010, London’, The Marmot Review [Online]. Available at www.parliament.uk/ documents/ fair-society-healthy-lives-full-report.pdf (Accessed 2 August 2019).
Marteau, T. M., Hollands, G. J., Shemilt, I. and Jebb, S. A. (2015) ‘Downsizing: policy options to reduce portion sizes to help tackle obesity’, British Medical Journal, vol. 351, no. h5863.
OED Online (2009a) ‘Lifestyle, n.’, in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edn [Online], Oxford, Oxford University Press. Available at www.oed.com/ view/ Entry/ 108129?redirectedFrom=lifestyle#eid (Accessed 20 April 2019).
OED Online (2009b) ‘Obesity, n.’, in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edn [Online], Oxford, Oxford University Press. Available at https://www.oed.com/ view/ Entry/ 129578?redirectedFrom=obesity#eid (Accessed 11 May 2019).
Office for National Statistics (2018) Adult Smoking Habits in the UK: 2017 [Online]. Available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/ peoplepopulationandcommunity/ healthandsocialcare/ healthandlifeexpectancies/ bulletins/ adultsmokinghabitsingreatbritain/ 2017 (Accessed 31 August 2019).
Parker, G. (2017) ‘Shamed into health? Fat pregnant women’s views on obesity management strategies in maternity care’, Women’s Studies Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 22–33.
Payne, G. and Payne, J. (2011) ‘Quantitative methods’, in Payne, G. and Payne, J. (eds) Key Concepts in Social Research [Online]. Available at http://methods.sagepub.com/ book/ key-concepts-in-social-research/ n38.xml (Accessed 31 May 2019).
Robinson, T. N. and Matheson, D. M. (2015) ‘Environmental strategies for portion control in children’, Appetite, vol. 88, pp. 33–38.
Saint-Maurice, P. F. Troiano, R. P., Matthews, C. E. and Kraus, W. E. (2018) ‘Moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: do bouts matter?’, Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1–6.
Science and Technology Select Committee (2011) ‘Behaviour Change’, House of Lords Paper 179, London, The Stationery Office.
Scottish Government (2010) Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland: A Route Map towards Healthy Weight, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government.
Skrabanek, P. (1994) The Death of Humane Medicine and the Rise of Coercive Healthism, Bury St Edmunds, The Social Affairs Unit.
Thaler, R. H. and Sunstein, C. R. (2009) Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness, London, Penguin Books.
Snape, D. and Spencer, L. (2003) ‘The foundations of qualitative research’, in Richie, J. and Lewis, J. (eds) Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London, SAGE publications, pp. 1–23.
Whitehead, M. (1987) The Health Divide, London, Health Education Authority.
World Health Organization (2002) The World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life, Geneva, World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2004) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, Geneva, World Health Organization.
Zivkovic, T., Warin, M., Moore, V., Ward, P. and Jones, M. (2018) ‘Fat as productive: enactments of fat in an Australian suburb’, Medical Anthropology, pp. 1–14.

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371