This free course was written by Mark Brandon.
Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.
The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:
Course image Smudge 9000 in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.
Figures 1, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13 and 16: Copyright © Mark Brandon
Figure 14: Copyright © National Snow and Ice Data Center
Figure 15: Copyright © Arctic Council Secretariat.
Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Don't miss out
If reading this text has inspired you to learn more, you may be interested in joining the millions of people who discover our free learning resources and qualifications by visiting The Open University – www.open.edu/ openlearn/ free-courses.
This free course is adapted from a former Open University course called 'The frozen planet (S175)'.