- The polar regions are cold because only a fraction of the solar energy received at the surface of the Earth actually heats them. The remaining energy is reflected back out into space.
- The inclination of the axis of the Earth’s rotation to the Sun is responsible for the seasons, the latitude of the Arctic and Antarctic Circles and polar day and polar night.
- The Arctic is a culturally diverse region and is commonly defined by the locations of the treeline or the mean atmospheric surface temperature in July being 10 °C.
- The region south of the Polar Front is the Antarctic. South of this are cold waters, Antarctic wildlife and ice-covered lands.