Surviving the winter
Surviving the winter

This free course is available to start right now. Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course

Surviving the winter


Baker, J. M. R. (1992) Body condition and tail height in great crested newts, Triturus cristatus, Animal Behaviour, 43, pp. 157-159.
Bronson, F. H. (1987) Environmental regulation of reproduction in rodents. In: Psychobiology of Reproductive Behavior, D. Crews (ed.), Prentice Hall, New Jersey. p. 209.
Hedenstrom, A. and Alerstam, T. (1992) Climbing performance of migratory birds as a basis for estimating limits for fuel-carrying capacity and muscle work, Journal of Experimental Biology, 164, pp. 19-38.
Irving, L. (1966) Adaptations to cold, Scientific American, 214, pp. 94-101.
Kenagy, G. J. (1981) Effects of day length, temperature, and endogenous control on annual rhythms of reproduction and hibernation in chipmunks (Eutamias spp.), Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 141, pp. 369-378.
Macdonald, D. W. (1976) Food caching by red foxes and some other carnivores, Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 42, pp. 170-185.
Nunes, S., Ha, C.-D. T., Garrett, P. J., Mueke, E. M., Smale, L. and Holekamp. K.E. (1998) Body fat and time of year interact to mediate dispersal behaviour in ground squirrels, Animal Behaviour, 55, pp. 605-614.
Pinder, A. W., Storey, K. B. and Ultsch, G. R. (1992) Estivation and hibernation, in: Environmental Physiology of Amphibians, Feder, M. E. and Burggren, W. W. (eds), Chicago University Press, pp. 250-276.
Pough, F. H., Heiser, J. B. and McFarland, W. N. (1996) Vertebrate Life (4th. edn), Prentice Hall, New Jersey, pp. 589, 688, 695.
Valerio, P. F., Kao, M. H. and Fletcher, G. L. (1992) Fish skin: an effective barrier to ice crystal propagation, Journal of Experimental Biology, 164, pp. 135-151.
Further reading
Barnes, R. S. K., Calow, P. and Olive, P. J. W. (1988) The Invertebrates: a New Synthesis, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. [A comprehensive review of diversity, evolution and ecology of invertebrates.]
Irving, L. (1966) Adaptations to cold, Scientific American, 214, pp. 94-101. [An important and accessible summary of physiological adaptations of vertebrates to cold.]
Krebs, J. R. and Davies, N. B. (1987) An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology (2nd edn), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. [A collection of essays by leading researchers on key themes in behavioural ecology.]
Pond, C. M. (2000) The Fats of Life, (2nd edn) Cambridge University Press. [This book explains in simple language the biology of feasting and fasting, fattening and slimming in wild animals as well as people.]
Pough, F. H., Janis, C. M. and Heiser J. B. (1999) Vertebrate Life (5th. edn), Prentice Hall, New Jersey. (6th edn expected 2001) [A wide-ranging review of the diversity, function and evolution of vertebrates.]
Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F. and Eichhorn, S. E. (1999) Biology of Plants (6th edn.), Freeman, New York. [A richly-illustrated book that deals with all aspects of plant biology, from cellular mechanisms to ecology, and covering physiology, evolution and diversity.]

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has nearly 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to university level study, find out more about the types of qualifications we offer, including our entry level Access courses and Certificates.

Not ready for University study then browse over 900 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus