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3.2 Summary of Section 3

  • Protective immune responses are directed against critical antigens in the pathogen's structure, or in its products (e.g. toxins, enzymes).

  • Antibodies that bind to critical antigens can neutralise or inhibit bacterial toxins and enzymes, immobilise pathogens, prevent them binding to host cells, and enhance their destruction by phagocytes and cytotoxic cells.