Icy bodies: Europa and elsewhere
Icy bodies: Europa and elsewhere

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Acknowledgements

Course image: Stuart Rankin [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

The following appears in Introduction to Astrobiology (Planetary Science Book 2: ISBN 0-521-54621-4) which is published in association with Cambridge University Press and forms part of the course material for The Open University course: S283 Planetary science and the search for life.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Figure 1, 2 and 8: © Science Photo Library;

Figure 3: © National Portrait Gallery;

Figures 4-6, 7, 10a, 11-14, 16, 17, 19, 21-26, 28-29 and 33: © NASA;

Figure 10b: © Calvin J. Hamilton;

Figure 18: from Satellites of the Outer Planets, 2nd edition by David A Rothery, copyright © David A Rothery;

Figure 20: USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory;

Figure 30: © Rob Wood/Wood Ronsaville Harlin, Inc;

Figure 32: Image courtesy of Marc.W. Buie/Lowell Observatory.

© Rob Wood/Wood Ronsaville Harlin, Inc

Don't miss out:

If reading this text has inspired you to learn more, you may be interested in joining the millions of people who discover our free learning resources and qualifications by visiting The Open University - www.open.edu/ openlearn/ free-courses

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371