4.4 Values and norms
Values and norms within an organisation will often influence the type of knowledge and, hence, the capabilities seen as important to an organisation. These norms are likely to be longstanding and traceable to the organisation’s inception and/or founders, as for example, is frequently claimed to be the case for Apple, Google, Wikipedia, or the successful retail chain, John Lewis, in the UK. Expression of these values will have an effect in that people in an organisation are partly self-selected and the legitimacy of potential new product developments is often validated by the overarching values of the organisation.
Any discussion of the anatomy of a capability would not be complete without recognising two further, fundamental features – organisational routines and learning.