Transport and sustainability
Transport and sustainability

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Transport and sustainability


All third party content in this course is not subject to Creative Commons licensing. This includes the content acknowledged below and all third party figures (with source information) and videos which links are provided for ease of access only.

Course image: Petras Gagilas [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary, used under licence and not subject to Creative Commons licensing. 

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following:

Figure 2: Nissan calculation from Nissan Green Program 2010

Figure 5: adapted from figure 4 in 'Strategies Towards Meeting Future Particulate Matter Emission Requirements in Homogeneous Gasoline Direct Injection Engines'(Walter Piock, Guy Hoffmann, Axel Berndorfer, Patick Salemi and Bernd Fusshoeller, Delphi Powertrain Systems), Luxembourg © SAE International 2011

Figure 7:

Figures 8, 9, 18, 22: courtesy of Stephen Potter

Figure 10: photographer Joel Creed/ ©

Figure 11: © Patrick Laverdant/

Figure 12: © unknown

Figure 13:

Figure 14: photograph of Nissan Leaf by Steven Lines, Milton Keynes Council

Figure 16: photograph (Joe Mills, course team) of Opel Volt Ampera

Figure 17: American Honda Motor Co, Inc.

Figures 19, 20:

Audio 1: Thanks go to Professor Stephen Potter (Open University), Professor Dermott Roddy (University of Newcastle), Professor Andrew Weller (University of Oxford). Post production The Hall; produced by Clear Focus Productions. © The Open University 2012.

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Creative Commons link: licenses/ by-nc-sa/ 4.0/

Don't miss out:

If reading this text has inspired you to learn more, you may be interested in joining the millions of people who discover our free learning resources and qualifications by visiting The Open University - openlearn/ free-courses


Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371