Summary of Study Session 16

In Study Session 16, you have learned that:

  1. Children are usually infected with TB by an adult or an older child with sputum smear-positive PTB, often a family member.
  2. The best way to prevent childhood TB is therefore by proper identification and treatment of infectious patients, but diagnosis can be difficult for younger children not able to produce sputum.
  3. The DOTS strategy is applicable to all patients with TB, including children and those with TB/HIV co-infection.
  4. TB is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and the spread of HIV has increased the TB epidemic in Ethiopia. HIV increases risk to infection with M. tuberculosis, the risk of progression to TB disease, and the incidence and prevalence of TB.
  5. All patients diagnosed with TB should be encouraged to undergo counselling and testing for HIV, and all HIV-positive patients should be screened for TB.
  6. Sputum smear microscopy remains the main method to confirm a diagnosis of pulmonary TB, including in HIV-positive patients. It also helps in identifying infectious patients so that transmission can be stopped.
  7. Most of the time, drug-resistant TB is due to inadequate treatment, poor adherence to drug regimens, poor quality or insufficient drugs, and lack of training of healthcare providers in drug prescribing, monitoring and follow-up.
  8. For all TB patients, do all you can to ensure adherence to drug regimens, which will reduce the prevalence of TB, including the drug-resistant forms.

16.3.1  Drug sensitivity testing (DST)

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 16