Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 25

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering the following questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 25.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 25.1 and 25.2)

Which of the following is not a strategy to prevent transmission of HIV? Explain your answer.

A  Providing information on ABC rules of safer sex to clients.

B  Providing information on prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission.

C  Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling.

D  Implementing HIV infection prevention measures at your health post.

E  Not mobilising your community to reduce harmful traditional practices such as uvulectomy.


E is incorrect. Harmful traditional practices such as uvulectomy promotes sharing of sharp objects contaminated with blood, and hence facilitates HIV transmission. All the other statements are good ways to prevent HIV transmission.

SAQ 25.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 25.1 and 25.3)

A young couple who do not know their HIV status have been using condoms for six months and then started to practise unprotected penetrative sex because they felt that they were in a faithful relationship. What would you advise them?


You should inform them that maintaining faithful relationships is effective for HIV prevention only if both partners are confirmed HIV-negative. You should provide counselling for HIV testing and inform them about the consistent use of safer sex practices, including the correct and regular use of condoms in every sexual encounter for couples who are not tested for HIV.

Read Case Study 25.1 and then answer the questions below it.

Case Study 25.1  Community mobilisation for HIV prevention

You are working as a Health Extension Practitioner in one of the rural kebeles but close to a semi-urban town. Though the prevalence of HIV in your kebele is lower than the national average, the prevalence in the small town near your kebele is 10%. Recently, a private road contractor has started to build the main road to Addis Ababa in your region. They have built many camps for the daily labourers working for the construction company near your kebele. In addition, trading women come to the camp area from the small town, as well as from other areas, to serve the daily labourers.

SAQ 25.3 (tests Learning Outcomes 25.4 and 25.5)

  • a.What steps would you plan to mobilise your community to prevent an increase in HIV transmission?
  • b.Who would be your target groups for the community mobilisation programme?
  • c.Who are your potential partners for this community mobilisation?
  • d.What HIV prevention strategies will you be implementing?


  • a.You may use the standard steps of community mobilisation, though you can modify or skip some of them depending on the availability of time and resources. You should consider the following:
    • Clearly define the problems, including the causes, by gathering information about ways that HIV transmission could increase.
    • Identify and establish community mobilisation groups from the community, kebele and woreda offices, and local charity organisations if they exist.
    • Design your HIV prevention strategies.
    • Plan the list of activities that you will implement in a certain time period.
    • Identify all of your partners and their roles, including community mobilisers, target groups and other external partners.
    • Implement your activities based on your designed HIV prevention strategies.
    • Monitor and evaluate your implementation results, comparing it to your plan.
  • b.The target groups for your community mobilisation could be:
    • sex workers
    • trading women
    • daily labourers
    • clients of sex workers
    • the construction company workers.
  • c.Your potential partners could be:
    • formal and informal kebele leaders
    • woreda HAPCO
    • local associations of PLHIV support groups
    • HIV/AIDS clubs
    • charity organisations
    • the construction company management team
    • Ethiopian roads authority.
  • d.HIV prevention strategies at community level may include:
    • behavioural change communication using health education and other methods
    • community condom distribution
    • HIV prevention campaigns
    • outreach peer education
    • life skills training for vulnerable women.

Summary of Study Session 25